바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

The Identity of “Joseon Film”: Between Colonial Cinema and National Cinema

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2019, v.59 no.4, pp.16-47
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2019.59.4.16

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

Inspired by the idea that Korean films during the colonial and post-liberation periods (1919–1948) constantly question the boundaries of Korean national cinema, this article suggests that those films produced during the periods be designated as “Joseon film” (Joseon yeonghwa) and aims to examine the backdrops and potential effects of the nomenclature. In doing so, this paper reexamines the boundaries of Korean film history. At the center of this discourse are ten Joseon films the Korea Film Archive has rediscovered over the past decade, of which this article focuses on three Tuition (1940), Angels on the Streets (1941), and Seagull (1948); all discovered at overseas film archives. These three films constantly evoke and prompt questions on the conceptual definition of Korean film, even though they have been included in the historiography of early Korean cinema and been preserved materially in the Korean Film Archive. Tuition and Angels on the Streets, dating from the Japanese colonial period, and Seagull, dating from the post-liberation period. I examine their production and distribution on the boundaries between Joseon and Korean cinema and between colonial and nation-state cinema. Although the former two films aimed at becoming imperial Japan’s state (Gukka) films, they came to be categorized as Joseon (Minjok, ethnic) cinema by imperial Japan since the colonial realities reflected in the film were problematic to mainland Japan. The nationbuilding propaganda film Seagull, which was produced and distributed in 1948, had to start negotiating with the state to become South Korean film. It could not be legitimated as a South Korean film as it was filmed, since the print was confiscated by the authorities due to the actors who defected to North Korea. Reviewing the designations of and the boundaries between Joseon and Korean cinema, this article takes a critical approach to Korean film historiography of the Japanese colonial and post-liberation periods in Korea.

keywords
Joseon film (Joseon yeonghwa) colonial Korean cinema Japanese cinema cooperation co-production post-liberation Korean film Korean national cinema film historiography

Reference

1.

Bang, Suwon. 1940. “Wonju Bangsuwon sugi” (Principle Bang Suwon’s Essay). Samcheolli (December): 134, 153–158.

2.

Choi, In-gyu. 1948. “Gukgyeong-eseo dongnip jeonya-e—Sibyeonyeon-ui na-ui yeonghwa jaseo” (From Border to The Night before Independence Day—My Autobiography of Ten Years in Film). Samcheolli (September): 18.

3.

Chosun ilbo. 1938. “Seongbong yeonghwawon dongbo chein-e chamga” (Seongbong Film Productions to Participate to Toho Chain). December 22.

4.

Chosun ilbo.1957. “Jeongneung seutadio gaesoshik seongdae geohaeng” (Grand Opening Ceremony of Jeongneung Studios). January 16.

5.

Dong-a ilbo. 1948. “Yeobaeu Hwangryeohee yang geomchalcheong-eseo muncho”(Actress Hwang Ryeo-hee under Investigation at the Public Prosecutors’ Office). March 7.

6.

Dong-a ilbo. 1975. “Heulleogan myeonghwa gamsanghoi sangyeong jakpum yeoldupyeon seonjeong” (A Special Show for Classic Noted Films Selected 12Films). July 5.

7.

Eiga hyoron. 1941a. “Chosen eiga no zenbo wo kataru” (Speaking of Whole Story of Joseon Cinema). July 1.

8.

Eiga hyoron. 1941b. “Chiho toshi kogyo gaikyo: keijo” (Overall Condition of Box Office at Local Cities: Gyeongseong). December 1.

9.

Jayu sinmun. 1946. “Shin yeonghwapyeong jayumanse” (New Film Critique, Hurrah for Freedom). October 25.

10.

Kinema junpo. 1938. “Gunyo ressha rokuon de mun yebong Ikko raicho” (Mun Yebong’s Party Visiting Japan for Recording the Film Military Train). June 1.

11.

Kinema junpo. 1938. “Nihon eiga hihyo: isari-bi” (Criticism of Japanese Film: Fisherman’s Fire). September 1.

12.

Kyunghyang sinmun. 1946. “Jayumanse-reul bogo” (Watching Hurrah for Freedom). October 24.

13.

Kyunghyang sinmun. 1947a. “Gyeongnam-e sonyeon gamhwawon” (Boys’ Reform School at Gyeongnam Province). March 6.

14.

Kyunghyang sinmun. 1947b. “Jayumanse jungguk-pan” (Chinese Version of Hurrah for Freedom). June 15.

15.

Kyunghyang sinmun. 1956 “Goryeo yeonghwa Choisajang-do piso” (Head of Goryeo Film Company, Choi Facing Lawsuit). June 29.

16.

Kyunghyang sinmun. 1975. “Heulleogan guksan myeonghwa han nun-e” (Watching Domestic Classic Films at One View). June 28.

17.

Maeil Shinbo. 1925. “Joseon yeonghwa-ui insang” (Impression of Joseon Film). January 1.

18.

Motion Picture and Video Promotion Act of 2007, No. 16061, Partial Revised on December 24, 2018.

19.

Nihon eiga. 1939. “Chosen eiga no gensho wo kataru” (Speaking of Phenomena of Joseon Film). August 1.

20.

Samcheolli. 1940. “Joseon munhwa geub saneop bangnamhoe, yeonghwa pyeon”(Joseon Culture and Industry Exhibition, For Film). May 1.

21.

Seo, Gwang-je. 1938. “Joseon yeonghwa-ui jangnae” (Future of Joseon Film). Chogwang (August): 232.

22.

Chung, Chonghwa. 2013. “Negotiating Colonial Korean Cinema in the Japanese Empire: From the Silent Era to the Talkies, 1923–1939.” Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review 2.1: 139–169.

23.

Chung, Chonghwa. 2014. “Singminjigi joseon-ui munhwa yeonghwa gaenyeom hyeongseong-e gwanhan yeongu” (A Study on the Formation of the Concept of Cultural Film in Colonial Korea). Yeonghwa yeongu (Film Studies) 61: 271–296.

24.

Chung, Chonghwa. 2015. “Joseon yeonghwa ‘sueomnyo’ui yeonghwa-hwa gwajeong-gwa tekseuteu bigyo yeongu” (A Study of the Filming Process of Tuition in Comparison with Its Text). Yeonghwa yeongu (Film Studies) 65: 201–236.

25.

Crofts, Stephen. 1998. “Concepts of National Cinema.” In The Oxford Guide to Film Studies, edited by John Hill and Pamela Church Gibson, 385-394. New York:Oxford University Press.

26.

Han, Sang-eon. 2018. “Haegeumhal su eomneun geoseul haegeum hagi: Wolbuk yeonghwain haegeum 30-nyeon-ui yeojeong” (Lifting of the Ban That Can Not Take Off: The Journey of Filmmakers Defecting to North Korea for 30 years). Gubo hakbo (Journal of Korean Modern Literature) 20: 211–238.

27.

Higson, Andrew. 2002. “The Concept of National Cinema.” In The European Cinema Reader, edited by Cathrine Fowler, 132-142. London and New York: Routledge.

28.

Kim, Dong Hoon. 2017. Eclipsed Cinema: The Film Culture of Colonial Korea. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

29.

Kim, Han-Sang. 2008. “Yeonghwa-ui gukjeok gwannyeom-gwa gukkayeonghwasa-ui jedo-hwa yeongu–Hangukyeonghwasa juyo yeongumunheon-eul jungsimeuro”(Research on the Idea of Film’s Nationality and the Institutionalization of the History of Korean National Cinema: Focusing on Research Documents and Classification Systems). Sahoiwa yeoksa (Society and History) 80: 257–286.

30.

Kim, Han-Sang. 2011. “Naengjeoncheje-wa naesheoneol sinema-ui honjongjeok woncheon:‘Jugeom-ui sangja’ deung Kimgiyeoung-ui migongbowon (USIS)munhwayeonghwa-reul jungsim-euro” (Cold War and the Hybrid Ursprung of South Korean National Cinema: On Boxes of Death and Kim Ki-Young’s USIS Public Information Films). Yeonghwa yeongu (Film Studies) 47: 87–111.

31.

Kim, Han-Sang. 2015. “Talsingmin gukga hyeongseonggi jaeoe joseonin-deul-ui jongjok sangsang—Haeyeon-gwa seoul yeonghwa jusikoesa-ui yeonghwa-reul jungsimeuro”(Self-Imagined Ethnicity of the Korean Diaspora during Postcolonial State Formation—A Seagull (1948) and the Films of the Seoul Motion Picture Company). Asea yeongu (Asian Studies) 161: 206–239.

32.

Kim, Ryeo Sil. 2006. Tusa-haneun jeguk tuyeong-haneun singminji (Projecting Empire, Reflecting Colony). Seoul: Samin.

33.

Kim, Ryeo Sil. 2009. “‘Jayu manse’ui tal-jeongjeonhwa-reul wihan siron: Hyeonjon sinariowa yeonghwa-ui chai-reul jungsim-euro” (An Essay on Hurrah Freedom:Focusing on the Difference between the Preserved Film and the Scenario). Hanguk munye bipyeong yeongu (Journal of Korean Modern Literary Criticism)28: 281–306.

34.

Lee, Hwa Jin. 2011. “‘Hangukyeonghwajeonsa,’ geu ihu-choigeun shikminji malgi yeonghwa yeongu-ui seonggwa-wa hangye” (Complete History of the Korean Film, Whereafter–Fruits and Limits of Recent Korean Film Studies on the Late Colonial Era). Sai-gan-sai (Between Each Other) 11: 239–261.

35.

Lee, Hwa Jin. 2016. Sori-ui jeongchi: Singminji joseon-ui geukjang-gwa jeguk-ui gwangaek(Sound Politics: Theaters in Colonial Korea and Audience of the Empire). Seoul:Hyeonsil munhwa yeongu.

36.

Lee, Yeong-il. 1969. Hanguk yeonghwa jeonsa (The Complete History of Korean Cinema). Seoul: Samaesa.

37.

Lee, Yeong-il. 2004. Hanguk yeonghwa jeonsa (The Complete History of Korean Cinema). Rev. ed. Seoul: Sodo.

38.

Naimu-sho keiho kyoku (Police Security Service of the Ministry of Home Affairs), ed. 1985 [1925–1944]. Eiga kenetsu jihou (Film Censorship Bulletin [Reprint]). Tokyo: Funi Publications.

39.

Korean Arts Institute (Hanguk yesul yeonguso), ed. 2003. Leeyeongil-ui hanguk yeonghwasa-reul wihan jeongeonnok (Youngil Lee’s Testimony for Korean Film History). 4 vols. Seoul: Sodo.

40.

Balguldoin gwageo (The Past Unearthed: Collection of Feature Films Series). 4 discs. Directed by Korean Film Archive, Seoul: Korean Film Archive. 2007.

41.

Balguldoin gwageo dubeonjjae (The Past Unearthed: The Second Encounter Collection of Chosun Films in the 1930s). 3 discs. Directed by Korean Film Archive, Seoul: Korean Film Archive. 2008.

42.

Balguldoin gwageo sebeonjjae byeongjeongnim (The Past Unearthed, The Third Encounter: Dear Soldier). Directed by Korean Film Archive, Seoul: Korean Film Archive. 2009.

43.

A Ferry Boat that Has No Owner (Imja-eomneun narutbae). Directed by Gyu-hwan Lee. Gyeongseong: Yusin kinema. 1932.

44.

A National Referendum (Gugmin tupyo). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Seoul: U.S. Information Service (U.S.I.S.). 1948.

45.

Angels on the Streets (Jip eomneun cheonsa). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Gyeongseong:Goryeo yeonghwa hyeophoe. 1941.

46.

A Seagull (Haeyeon). Directed by Gyu-hwan Lee. Seoul: Yesul yeonghwasa. 1948.

47.

An Innocent Criminal (Joe-eobneun joe-in). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Seoul: Goryeo yeonghwasa. 1948.

48.

Arirang Pass (Alilang gogae). Directed by Gae-myeong Hong. Gyeongseong:Gyeongseong chwaryeongso (Gyeongseong Studios). 1935.

49.

Boys Town. Directed by Norman Taurog. Beverly Hills: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 1938.

50.

Byeongjeongnim (Dear Soldier). Directed by Han-joon Bang. Gyeongseong: Joseon Military Press Bureau. 1944.

51.

Children of the Sun (Taiyo no kodomodachi). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Gyeongseong:Sadan beobin joseon yeonghwasa (Joseon Film Corporation). 1944.

52.

Chocolate and Soldiers (Chokoreto to heitai). Directed by Takeshi Sato. Tokyo: Toho eiga. 1938.

53.

Dance of Jang Chu-hwa (Jangchuhwa muyong). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Seoul: U.S. Information Service (U.S.I.S.). 1948.

54.

Dawn of the Nation (Minjok-ui saebyeok). Directed by Gyu-hwan Lee. Seoul: Daegwang yeonghwasa. 1947.

55.

Ex-Convict (Jeongwaja). Directed by So-bong Kim. Gyeongseong: Gyeongseong chwaryeongso. 1934.

56.

Fisherman’s Fire (Eohwa). Directed by Cheol-young Ahn. Gyeongseong: Keukgwang yeonghwasa. 1938.

57.

Happiness (Geudeul-ui haengbok). Directed by Gyu-hwan Lee. Seoul: Lee gyu-hwan Production. 1947.

58.

Hurrah For Freedom (Jayu manse). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Seoul: Goryeo yeonghwa jusikhoesa (Goryeo Film Company). 1946.

59.

I Will Die Under the National Flag (Gukgi mit-e na-neun jugeuri). Directed by Ik Lee. Gyeongseong: Joseon munhwa yeonghwa hyeopoe. 1939.

60.

Look up at the Blue Sky (Uleuleola changgong). Directed by Yeong-hwa Kim. Gyeongseong: Jonseon yeonghwa jejak jusikhoesa (Joseon Film Production Company). 1943.

61.

Love and the Vow (Ai to chikai). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Gyeongseong: Sadan beobin Joseon yeonghwasa. 1945.

62.

Miles Away from Happiness (Bokji malli). Directed by Chang-geun Jeon. Gyeongseong:Goryeo yeonghwa hyeopoe. 1941.

63.

Military Train (Gunyong yeolcha). Directed by Gwang-je Seo. Sungbong Film Productions (Sungbong yeonghwawon). 1938.

64.

My Hometown Village (Nae gohyang). Directed by Hong-sik Gang. Pyeongyang:Joseon yesul yeonghwa chwaryeongso. 1949.

65.

Shim Cheong. Directed by Seok-young Ahn. Gyeongseong: Kishin yanghaeng, 1937.

66.

Spring of Korean Peninsula (Bando-ui bom). Directed by Byeong-il Lee. Gyeongseong:Myeongbo yeonghwasa. 1941.

67.

Straits of Joseon (Joseon haehyeop). Directed by Gi-chae Park. Gyeongseong: Jonseon yeonghwa jejak jusikhoesa. 1943.

68.

Suicide Squad of the Watchtower (Boro no kesshitai). Directed by Tadashi Imai. Tokyo: Toho eiga. 1943.

69.

Sweet Dream (Mimong). Directed by Ju-nam Yang and Fujie Yamazaki. Gyeongseong chwaryeongso.1936.

70.

The Adventure of Ttolttori (Ttolttori-ui moheom). Directed by Gyu-hwan Lee. Seoul:Nam-il yeonghwasa. 1946.

71.

The Night before Independence Day (Dongnip jeonya). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Seoul: Goryeo yeonghwa jusikhoesa. 1948.

72.

The neighbor’s Wife and Mine (Madamu to nyobo). Directed by Heinosuke Gosho. Tokyo: Shochiku kinema. 1931.

73.

The Sprinkler (Salsucha). Directed by Han-joon Bang. Gyeongseong: Joseon jungang yeonghwasa. 1935.

74.

The Story of Chun-hyang (Chunhyangjeon). Directed by Myung-woo Lee. Gyeongseong: Gyeongseong chwaryeongso. 1935.

75.

The Town of Hope (Huimang-ui maeul). Directed by In-gyu Choi. Seoul: U.S. Information Service (U.S.I.S.). 1948.

76.

Tuition (Sueomnyo). Directed by In-gyu Choi and Han-jun Bang. Gyeongseong:Goryeo yeonghwa hyeopoe. 1940.

77.

Wanderer (Nageune). Directed by Gyu-hwan Lee. Gyeongseong: Sungbong Film Productions. 1937.

Korea Journal