This study focuses on the history of regional solidarity among Catholic churches in East Asia as civil society organizations within the axiological frame of peace and social order. This paper endeavors to show the significant role of the Korean-Japanese Catholic bishops conferences, which have developed over 20 years, not only in contributing to civil and social solidarity but also to congeniality between the Korean and Japanese people. The cooperative activities of the Korean and Japanese bishops, which have their origins in efforts to deal with the historical issues between Korea and Japan, are considered purposeful undertakings in support of peace and order in the East Asia region. With the passage of time, the solidarity of the bishops has developed toward solving diverse regional social dislocation issues. The thrust of the bishops’ unified action can be seen in two aspects. The first is the bishops’ view that society, to become peaceful and mature, requires structural changes, and thus the cooperative efforts of the Korean and Japanese bishops have a socio-political orientation. The second aspect is its role as social charity, that is, volunteer work on behalf of the impoverished and social minorities. When regional peace and cooperation are threatened by the self-interests of nation-states, the case of regional cooperation by a religious organization demonstrates how civil society is able to contribute to the progress and peace of a given region beyond the efforts of national governments.
This paper aims to bring clarity to the different views on li and qi of Yi Hwang 李滉 and Yi I 李珥, more specifically following their respective interpretations of the Taijitushuo 太極圖說. While the two agreed that Zhuzixue 朱子學 should maintain its firm place as the national ideology of Joseon, they differed in their views concerning post-Zhuzixue trends in Ming China, especially concerning the thoughts of Luo Qinshun 羅欽順. Yi Hwang based his interpretation of the Taijitushuo on that of Zhu Xi, emphasizing the priority of li over qi. Yi Hwang inherited Zhu Xi’s claim that the activity-tranquility was the taiji’s function, and sought to specify what the function was in his interpretation of sheng 生. For Yi Hwang, should li be without function, it is a “dead thing” that has no capacity or role, and cannot be the foundation on which Confucian ethics are grounded. Yi I never dealt with li as the cause of qi’s movement or being; his point of emphasis was that the taiji and yin-yang, or li and qi, were inseparable; and there was no chronological priority or posteriority between the two. Unlike Zhu Xi, he refused the priority of the taiji, claiming that the taiji was within the movement of qi, which was akin to Luo’s view.
Transnational remakes are created in a complex web of intertextual relations surrounded by diverse discursive influences. These specific production conditions often complicate the process of interpreting such films and reaching any definitive meanings. Kim Jee-woon’s The Good, the Bad, the Weird (2008) is a Korean transnational remake film that challenges signification as such. Simultaneously styling itself after Sergio Leone’s The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (1966) and Lee Man-hee’s Break Up the Chain (1971), the film asks us to reconsider widely accepted notions of genre and film remakes. Probing this hybrid film’s entangled layers of meaning, I argue that for a transnational remake such as this, different intertextual influences along with extratextual discourses constantly disturb the production of any cathartic meaning. These factors constantly affect the textual elements to be decontextualized and recontextualized in the course of interpretation, and the production of meaning itself is constantly destabilized and decentered.
This paper examines Im Sun-deuk’s two short stories, “Iryoil” (Sunday, 1937) and “Nazuke oya” (A Godmother, 1942). Im, an active participant in Korea’s socialist movement in the 1930s, turned to literature as her career at a time when Japanese colonial authorities had tightened their control over Korea to further the Japanese empire’s colonial expansion into China. In the process, the Japanese implemented an assimilation policy to mobilize the Korean people into the Japanese war effort. By employing the concept of confession in “Iryoil” and “Nazuke oya,” Im projects an autobiographical self onto her protagonists, both of whom are modern women striving to preserve their identities as socially conscious intellectuals committed to nationalism, socialism, and feminism. By positioning her protagonists as confessors to other characters in the texts, Im’s short stories portray intellectuals in colonial Korea as in conflict or harmony with her protagonists. Im’s protagonists embody female subjects who find a new kind of womanhood under Japanese colonial rule. However, in “Nazuke oya,” Im’s protagonist displays a more flexible and open attitude toward Koreans with attitudes and beliefs different from her own. In this sense, the act of confession as presented in Im’s texts is an attempt to build a bond and sense of community among the Korean people from a woman’s perspective, and at a time when Korean identity risked becoming obsolete.