This paper examines the Seoul Pride Parades of 2016 and 2017 to understand how Pride organizers and participants negotiate nationalism, developmentalism, and global human rights discourses to reconstruct citizenship and queerness in Korea. In particular, I focus on how self-affirmations of LGBTQ inadvertently intersect with, collude with, and traverse international liberal politics and Korean developmentalism in LGBTQ Koreans’ interactions with Euro-American embassies, antigay protesters, and the Korean government. Euro-American embassies have engaged with Korean LGBTQ movements by participating in recent celebrations of Seoul Pride. By contrast, antigay protesters have interrupted the parades by arguing that homosexuality ruins national development. For its part, the government has been reluctant to support LGBTQ rights. In this context, by relying on “proud of myself as LGBTQ” and using the embassies’ support, organizers not only oppose heteronormative nationalism but also produce what I call queer developmental citizenship. Through this form of citizenship, LGBTQ Koreans seek to cultivate the self and others to catch up with and align with Euro-American citizenship models, but they are less critical of liberal politics and developmental hierarchies between Korea and Western countries. I also consider how LGBTQ Koreans can nevertheless disrupt liberal developmental hierarchies by creating social relationalities and coalitions.
Ammaturo, Francesca R. 2016. “Spaces of Pride: A Visual Ethnography of Gay Pride Parades in Italy and the United Kingdom.” Social Movement Studies 15.1: 19–40.
Bilic, Bojan. 2016. “Europeanization, LGBT Activism, and Non-Heteronormativity in the Post-Yugoslave Space: An Introduction.” In LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in the Post-Yugoslav Space, edited by Bojan Bilic, 1–22. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Brickell, Chris. 2000. “Heroes and Invaders: Gay and Lesbian Pride Parades and the Public/Private Distinction in New Zealand Media Accounts.” Gender, Place and Culture 7.2: 163–178.
Bruce, Katharine. 2016. Pride Parades: How a Parade Changed the World. New York:New York University Press.
Burawoy, Michael. 1991. “The Extended Case Method.” In Ethnography Unbound:Power and Resistance in the Modern Metropolis, edited by Michael Burawoy et al., 271–290. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Chang, Kyung-Sup. 2012. “Developmental Citizenship in Perspective: The South Korean Case and Beyond.” In Contested Citizenship in East Asia: Developmental Politics, National Unity, and Globalization, edited by Kyung-Sup Chang and Bryan S. Turner, 182–202. New York: Routledge.
Chasin, Alexandra. 2000. Selling Out: The Gay and Lesbian Movement Goes to Market. New York: St. Martin’s.
Chingusai. 2014. Hanguk LGBTI keomyuniti sahoejeok yokgu josa choejong bogoseo (Key Results South Korean LGBTI Community Social Needs Assessment Survey). Seoul: Chingusai.
Cho, Younghan. 2008. “The National Crisis and De/reconstructing Nationalism in South Korea during the IMF Intervention.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9.1: 82–96.
Choi, Byung-Doo. 2012. “Developmental Neoliberalism and Hybridity of the Urban Policy of South Korea.” In Locating Neoliberalism in East Asia: Neoliberalizing Spaces in Developmental Spaces, edited by Bae-Gyoon Park, Richard C. Hill, and Asato Saito, 86–113. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.
Choo, Hae Yeon. 2016. Decentering Citizenship: Gender, Labor, and Migrant Rights in South Korea. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Eng, David. 2010. The Feeling of Kinship: Queer Liberalism and the Racialization of Intimacy. Durham: Duke University Press.
Eng, David, Judith Halberstam, and Jose Muñoz. 2005. “Introduction: What’s Queer about Queer Studies Now?” Social Text 84/85: 1–17.
Enguix, Begonya. 2009. “Identities, Sexualities and Commemorations: Pride Parades, Public Space and Sexual Dissidence.” Anthropological Notebooks 15.2:15–33.
European Union. 2013. “Guidelines to Promote and Protect the Enjoyment of All Human Rights by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersexual (LGBTI) Persons.” Accessed April 28, 2018. https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/guidelines-promote-and-protect-enjoyment-all-human-rights-lesbian-gaybisexual-transgender-and_en.
Foucault, Michel. 1993. “About the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the Self: Two Lectures at Dartmouth.” Political Theory 21.2: 198–227.
Han, Ju hui Judy. 2011. ““If You Don’t Work, You Don’t Eat”: Evangelizing Development in Africa.” In New Millennium South Korea: Neoliberal Capital and Transnational Movements, edited by Jesook Song, 142–158. New York:Routledge.
Han, Ju hui Judy. 2017. “Becoming Visible, Becoming Political: Faith and Queer Activism in South Korea.” Scholar & Feminist Online 14.2. Accessed April 28, 2018. http://sfonline.barnard.edu/queer-religion/becoming-visible-becoming-politicalfaith-and-queer-activism-in-south-korea/.
Han, Woori. 2017. “Kwieo-neun hangsang geupjinjeoginga?: Kwieo ribeoreollijeumgwa hanguk kwieo simin-ui wichiseong” (Is Queer Always Radical?: Queer Liberalism and the Positionality of Korean Queer Citizenship). Mal-gwa hwal (Word and Bow) 12: 69–90.
Holt, Martin, and Christine Griffin. 2003. “Being Gay, Being Straight and Being Yourself: Local and Global Reflections on Identity, Authenticity and the Lesbian and Gay Scene.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 6.3: 404–425.
Isin, Engin, and Patricia Wood. 1999. Citizenship and Identity. London: Sage.
Jun, EuyRyung. 2012. “‘We Have to Transform Ourselves First’: The Ethics of Liberal Developmentalism and Multicultural Governance in South Korea.” Focal:Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology 64: 99–112.
Kate, Steven, and Russel Belk. 2001. “The Meanings of Lesbian and Gay Pride Day:Resistance through Consumption and Resistance to Consumption.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 30.4: 392–429.
KQCF (Korea Queer Culture Festival). n.d. “Introduction.” Accessed April 28, 2018. http://kqcf.org/xe/page_pvGa19.
Liu, Petrus. 2015. Queer Marxism in Two Chinas. Durham: Duke University Press.
Luongo, Michael. 2002. “Rome’s World Pride: Making the Eternal City an International Gay Tourism Destination.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8.1: 167–181.
Mahmood, Saba. 2005. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Durham: NC, Duke University Press.
Markwell, Kevin. 2002. “Mardi Gras Tourism and the Construction of Sydney as an International Gay and Lesbian City.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 8.1: 81–99.
Mikuš, Marek. 2011. “‘State Pride’: Politics of LGBTQ Rights and Democratisation in ‘European Serbia.’” East European Politics & Societies 25.4: 834–851.
Moon, Seungsook. 2005. Militarized Modernity and Gendered Citizenship in South Korea. Durham: Duke University Press.
Muehlebach, Andrea. 2012. The Moral Neoliberal: Welfare and Citizenship in Italy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Muñoz, Jose. 1999. Disidentifications: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Muñoz, Jose. 2009. Cruising Utopia: The Then and There of Queer Futurity. New York:New York University Press.
Na, Tari Y. 2014. “The South Korean Gender System: LGBTI in the Contexts of Family, Legal Identity, and the Military.” Journal of Korea Studies 19.2: 357–377.
Ong, Aihwa. 2006. “Mutations in Citizenship.” Theory, Culture, and Society 23.2/3:499–531.
Osori [pseud.]. 2015. “Osori-ui miguk LGBT danche bangmungi 3” (Osori’s Visit to LGBT Organizations in the US, Episode 3). Solidarity for LGBT Human Rights of Korea. Last modified May 28, 2016 and accessed April 28, 2018. http://lgbtpride.tistory.com/998?category=505576.
Puar, Jasbir. 2007. Terrorist Assemblage: Homonationalism in Queer Times. Durham:Duke University Press.
Renkin, Hadley. 2015. “Perverse Frictions: Pride, Dignity, and the Budapest LGBTQ March.” Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 80.3: 409–432.
Rexhepi, Piro. 2017. “The Politics of (Post)Socialist Sexuality: American Foreign Policy in Bosnia and Kosovo.” In The Cultural Life of Capitalism in Yugoslavia:(Post)Socialism and Its Other, edited by Dijana Jelaca et al., 243–269. London:Palgrave Macmillan.
SOGI LAW (Korean Society of Law and Policy on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity). 2016. Annual Review 2015: Human Rights Situation of LGBTI in South Korea. Seoul: SOGI LAW.
Song, Jesook. 2009. South Koreans in the Debt Crisis: The Creation of a Neoliberal Welfare Society. Durham: Duke University Press.
Yi, Jae-eun. 2017. “Seongin namnyeo 70.8% ‘Gihoedoenda-myeon imin’” (Seventy Percent of Korean Respondents Aspire to Immigrate). Newsis. Last modified January 11, 2017 and accessed April 28, 2018. http://news.joins.com/article/21106467.