바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

How South Koreans Interpreted Modern China: South Korean Studies of Modern Chinese History during the Cold War Era

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2018, v.58 no.1, pp.150-177
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2018.58.1.150

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

The purposes of this paper are to analyze how three South Korean scholars—Kim Junyop,Min Tu-ki, and Rhee Yeung-hui—interpreted modern China during the Cold Warera and thereby show that the development of South Korean studies on modern Chinesehistory was linked to the global Cold War. It was only after the Korean War that SouthKoreans began to study modern Chinese history in earnest. Despite anticommunistpressure on academic interests in the field, South Korean interpretations of modernChinese history at the time were not uniform. For example, Min viewed it as thehistory of the establishment of a modern state, while Rhee saw it as the history of therevolutionary movement to overcome Western modernity. What is also interestingis that each type of interpretation matched its proponent’s attitudes toward andunderstanding of modernization. More precisely, each researcher’s understanding ofmodernization was an important and powerful argument for his interpretation anddescription of modern Chinese history. In this sense, it can be said that South Koreanstudies of modern Chinese history during the Cold War era were the products ofintellectual activities that included selective acceptance, reinterpretation, and criticismof the cultural Cold War symbolized by modernization theory.

keywords
modern Chinese history Cold War modernization theory Kim Jun-yop Min Tu-ki Rhee Yeung-hui Chinese modernization

Reference

1.

Bae, Kyung-han. 2000. “Min Tu-ki seonsaeng-ui jungguk geunhyeondaesa yeongu-wa geu gyeseung banghyang” (Prof. Min Tu-ki’s Studies of Modern Chinese History and the Direction of its Succession). Jungguk geunhyeondaesa yeongu (Korean Studies of Modern Chinese History) 9: 95–98.

2.

Bae, Kyung-han. 2007. Ssunwon-gwa hanguk (Sun Yat-sen and Korea). Seoul: Hanul.

3.

Baik, Young-seo. 1993. “Hanguk-eseoui jungguk hyeondaesa yeongu-ui uimi” (The Meaning of Studies of Chinese Modern History in South Korea). Jungguk hyeondaesa yeonguhoe hoebo (Chinese Modern History Research Society Newsletter) 1: 9–18.

4.

Baik, Young-seo. 1994. Jungguk hyeondae daehang munhwa yeongu (Studies on Students and Revolution in 1920s’ China). Seoul: Ilchokak.

5.

Baik, Young-seo. 2004. “Dongyang sahak-ui tansaeng-gwa soetoe” (The Birth and Decline of Oriental History). Changjak-gwa bipyeong (Quarterly Changbi) 126: 95–116.

6.

Baik, Young-seo.2012. “Junggukhak-ui gwejeok-gwa bipanjeok jungguk yeongu” (Trajectories in Critical Chinese Studies in Korea). Daedong munhwa yeongu (Study of Eastern Culture) 80: 563–608.

7.

Baik, Young-seo. 2013. Haeksim hyeonjang-eseo dongasia-reul dasi mutda (Questioning East Asia Again at the Core Site). Seoul: Changbi.

8.

Chang, Kyu-sik. 2014. “1950–70 nyeondae sasanggye jisigin-ui bundan insik-gwa minjokjuuiron-ui gwejeok” (The World of Thought Intellectuals’ Nationalism and Thoughts on the Division of the Korean Peninsula during the 1950s–1970s). Hanguksa yeongu (Journal of Korean History) 167: 289–339.

9.

Cho, Kyong-ran. 2016. Gukga, yuhak, jisigin: hyeondae jungguk-ui bosujuui-wa minjokjuui (The State, Confucianism, and Intellectuals: Conservatism and Nationalism in Contemporary China). Seoul: Chaeksesang.

10.

Choi, Young-muk. 2012. “Rhee Yeung-hui-ui eollon sasang-gwa silcheon-e gwanhan yeongu” (A Study on Rhee Yeung-hui’s Ideas and Practice of Journalism). Hanguk eollon jeongbo hakbo (Korean Journal of Communication and Information) 59: 7–30.

11.

Chung, Il-joon. 2005. “Hanguk sahoegwahak paradigm-ui migukhwa” (Americanization of Social Science Paradigm: The Dissemination of Modernization Theory and Its Reception in South Korea). Migukhak nonjip (Journal of American Studies) 37.3: 66–92.

12.

Chung, Moonsang. 2004. Jungguk-ui gungmin hyeongmyeong-gwa sanghae haksaeng undong (The Nationalist Revolution and Student Activism in Shanghai). Seoul: Hyean.

13.

Chung, Moonsang. 2009. “Kim Jun-yop-ui geunhyeondae junggungnon-g wa dongasia naengjeon” (Kim Jun-yop’s Views on Modern Chinese History and Cold War in East Asia). Yeoksa bipyeong (Critical Review of History) 87: 228–261.

14.

Chung, Moonsang. 2010. “Hanguk-ui naengjeon munhwa hyeongseong-g wa munhwa daehyeongmyeong” (Understanding the Chinese Cultural Revolution and the Formation of Cold War Culture in South Korea). Jungguk geunhyeondaesa yeongu (Korean Studies of Modern Chinese History) 48: 109–129.

15.

Chung, Moonsang. 2015. “Guo Ting-yi-ui geundae junggungnon-gwa daeman-ui munhwa naengjeon” (Guo Ting-yi’s Views on Modern Chinese History and Cultural Cold War in Taiwan). Jungguk geunhyeondaesa yeongu (Korean Studies of Modern Chinese History) 68: 137–166.

16.

Cohen, Paul A. 1984. Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past. New York: Columbia University Press.

17.

Ha, Sae-bong. 1989. “Hanguk dongyang sahakgye-e daehan bipanjeok geomto” (Critical Examination of the Oriental History Field). Yeoksa bipyeong (Critical Review of History) 7: 219–241.

18.

Ha, Sae-bong. 2010. “Urideul-ui jahwasang: choegeun hanguk-ui jungguk geunhyeondaesa yeongu” (A Mapping of South Korean Studies of Modern Chinese History). Hanguk sahaksa hakbo (The Korean Journal of History of Historiography) 21: 79–109.

19.

Hwang, Dongyoun. 2012. “The Politics of China Studies in South Korea: A Critical Examination of South Korean Historiography of Modern China since 1945.” Journal of Modern Chinese History 6.2: 256–276.

20.

Hwang, Dongyoun. 2013. Saeroun gwageo mandeulgi (Making a New Past). Seoul: Hyean.

21.

Im, Sang-beom. 2000. Hyeondae jungguk-ui chulbal (The Origins of Modern China). Seoul: Ilchokak.

22.

Im, Sang-beom. 2009. “Min Tu-ki sahak-ui ilmyeon” (Another Side of Min Tu-ki’s Historical Studies). Dongyang sahak yeongu (Journal of Asian Historical Studies) 107: 331–381.

23.

Jeon, In-gap. 2002. Isip segi jeonban-gi sanghae sahoe-ui jiyeokjuui-wa nodongja (The Transition toward Modern China, “Overdetermined” by “Tradition” of “Modernity”: Regionalism in the Shanghai’s Labor Society in the Early Twentieth Century). Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

24.

Jeon, In-gap. 2016. Hyeondae jungguk-ui jegungmong (Contemporary China and the Dream of Chinese Empire).

25.

Jung, Jae-seo. 1999. “Siljeung-ui pian-gwa junggukhak-ui mirae” (The Nirvana of Positivism and the Future of Chinese Studies). In Dongasia yeongu (East Asia Studies), edited by Jae-seo Jung, 269–299. Seoul: Sallim.

26.

Jung, Young-tae. 2003. “Hanguk jeongchihak-ui miguk pyeonghyangseong-gwa hanguk jeongchi” (The Bias of Korean Political Science toward the United States and Korean Politics). In Uri hangmun sok-ui miguk (America in Our Studies), edited by the Korea Progressive Academy Council, 137–161. Seoul: Hanul.

27.

Kang, Myung-hee. 2003. Geunhyeondae jungguk-ui gukga geonseol-gwa jesam-ui gil (State Building and the Third Way in Modern China). Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

28.

Kim, Geon-woo. 2003. Sasanggye-wa 1950 nyeondae munhak (World of Thought and Literature in the 1950s). Seoul: Somyung.

29.

Kim, Geon-woo. 2009. “1964 nyeon-ui damnon jihyeong” (The Discourse Topography of 1964). Daejungseosa yeongu (Journal of Popular Narrative) 15.2: 71–90.

30.

Kim, Hee-gyo. 2001. “Hanguk-ui bipanjeok jungguk damnon geu siljong-ui yeoksa” (The Untaken Road: Searching for Critical Studies of “China” Discourse in South Korea, 1945–2000). Yeoksa bipyeong (Critical Review of History) 57: 252–273.

31.

Kim, In-geol. 2000. “Hyeondae hanguk sahak-ui gwaje” (Tasks for South Korean Studies of Korean History). In 20 segi yeoksahak 21 segi yeoksahak (Twentieth Century History and Twenty-First Century History), edited by the Korean History Research Association, 25–66. Seoul: Yeokbi.

32.

Kim, Jun-yop. 1958. Jungguk gongsandangsa (History of Chinese Communist Party). Seoul: Sasanggye.

33.

Kim, Jun-yop.[1963] 1976. Jungguk choegeunsesa (History of Modern China). 3rd ed. Seoul: Ilchokak.

34.

Kim, Jun-yop. 1968. Son Mun Ho Jeok (Sun Yat-sen Hu Shi). Seoul: Jigyeongsa.

35.

Kim, Jun-yop. 1979. “Junggong-ui bilimbigong undong” (Criticism of Lin Biao and Confucius in Communist China). In Junggong-gwa asia (Communist China and Asia), edited by Kim Jun-yop, 321–328. Seoul: Ilchokak. Originally published in Godae sinmun (Korea University News) (April 30, 1974).

36.

Kim, Jun-yop. 2001. Dasi daeryuk-euro (Back toward China). Vol. 5 of Jangjeong (Long March). Seoul: Nanam.

37.

Kishi, Toshihiko, and Tsuchiya Yuka. 2009. “Bunka reisen niokeru beikoku no koho senden katsudo to ajia eno eikyo 文化冷戰における米國の廣報宣傳活動とアジアへ の影響” (U.S. Information Activities during the Cultural Cold War and Its Influences on Asia). In Bunka reisen no jidai 文化冷戰の時代 (De-Centering the Cultural Cold War), edited by Kishi Toshihiko and Tsuchiya Yuka, 11–29. Tokyo: Kokusai Shoin.

38.

Koschmann, J. Victor. 1997. “Mao Zedong and the Postwar Japanese Left.” In Critical Perspectives on Mao Zedong’s Thought, edited by Arif Dirlik, Paul Healy, and Nick Knight, 342–364. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.

39.

Kuhn, Philip. 1976. “Local Self-Government under the Republic: Problems of Control, Autonomy and Mobilization.” In Conflict and Control in Late Imperial China, edited by Frederic Wakeman Jr., and Carolyn Grant, 257–298. Berkeley: University of California Press.

40.

Latham, Michael E. 2000. Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and “Nation Building” in the Kennedy Era. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.

41.

Lee, Byung-in. 2006. Geundae sanghae-ui mingan danche-wa gukga (Civic Organizations and the State in Modern Shanghai). Seoul: Changbi.

42.

Lee, Kyung-ran. 2010. “1950–70 nyeondae yeoksa hakgye-wa yeoksa yeongu-ui sahoe damnonhwa” (Social Discourse for Historical Academia and Historical Research from the 1950s to 1970s). Dongbang hakji (Journal of Korean Studies) 152: 339–383.

43.

Lee, Sang-rok. 2007. “1960–70 nyeondae bipanjeok jisigindeul-ui geundaehwa insik” (Critical Intellectuals’ Perspectives on the Modernization of South Korea during Park Chung-hee’s Regime). Yeoksa munje yeongu (Critical Studies on Modern Korean History) 18: 215–251.

44.

Levenson, Joseph R. 1958. Confucian China and Its Modern Fate. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

45.

Min, Tu-ki. 1965. “Cheongdae saenggamcheung-ui seonggyeok” (Reflections on the Stabilized and Independent Aspects of the Status of the Sheng-Qian Group under the Qing Dynasty). Asea hakbo (Journal of Asiatic Studies) 8.4: 43–77.

46.

Min, Tu-ki. 1966. “Jungguk-ui jeontongjeok jeongchisang” (The Meaning of Traditional “Polemics on Political Feudalism” in the pre-Qing Period). Jindan hakbo (Journal of Korean Studies) 29/30: 395–434.

47.

Min, Tu-ki. 1967. “Cheongdae bonggeollon-ui geundaejeok byeonmo” (The Modern Transformation of Feng-Qian Lun in the Qing Dynasty). Asea hakbo (Journal of Asian Studies) 10.1: 53–86.

48.

Min, Tu-ki. 1976a. “Geundae-ui uimi” (The Meaning of Modernization). In Yeoksa-ui chang (Window of History), edited by Tu-ki Min, 103–105. Seoul: Jisik Sanupsa. Originally published in Daehak sinmun (Seoul National University News) (May 22, 1972).

49.

Min, Tu-ki. 1976b. “Junggong-ui yeoksajeok sigak” (Historical Perspective on Communist China). In Jungguk geundaesaron I (Essays on Modern Chinese History I), edited by Tu-ki Min, 83–86. Seoul: Jisik Saneopsa.

50.

Min, Tu-ki. 1976c. “Geundae jungguk-ui gaehyeok-gwa hyeongmyeong” (Reform and Revolution in Modern China). In Jungguk geundaesaron I (Essays on Modern Chinese history I), edited by Tu-ki Min, 51–62. Seoul: Jisik Saneopsa.

51.

Min, Tu-ki. 1985. “Na-ui jijeok pyeollyeok” (My Intellectual Wanderings). In Hansongi deulkkot-gwa mannal ttae (When I Meet a Bunch of Wild Flowers), edited by Tu- ki Min, 44–54. Seoul: Jisik Saneopsa. Originally published in Wolgan joseon (Monthly Joseon) (March 1, 1982): 375–381.

52.

Min, Tu-ki. 1997. “Gonhak-ui yeoro” (An Arduous Journey of Learning). In Jungguk chogi hyeongmyeong undong-ui yeongu (A Study of China’s Modern Revolution Movement), edited by Tu-ki Min, 399–448. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

53.

Namiki, Yorihisa. 1993. “Nihon niokeru chugoku kindaishi kenkyu no doko 日本におけ る中國近代史硏究の動向” (Trends in Research on Modern Chinese History in Japan). In Kindai chugoku kenkyu annai 近代中國硏究案內 (Introduction to Modern Chinese Studies), edited by Kojima Shinji and Namiki Yorihisa, 3–31. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten.

54.

Oh, Byung-soo. 2015. “Asia jaedan-gwa hongkong-ui naengjeon (1952–1961)” (The Asia Foundation and the Cold War in Hong Kong, 1952–1961). Dongbuga yeoksa nonchong (Journal of Northeast Asian History) 48: 7–51.

55.

Rhee, Yeung-hui. [1974] 2006a. “Sasangjeok byeoncheon-euro bon jungguk geundaehwa 100 nyeonsa” (100 Years of Chinese Modernization Viewed through Ideological Change). In Jeonhwan sidae-ui nolli (The Logic of the Transition Period), edited by Yeung-hui Rhee, 154–173. Seoul: Changbi.

56.

Rhee, Yeung-hui.[1974] 2006b. “Oehwa-wa ilbonin” (Foreign Currency and the Japanese). In Jeonhwan sidae-ui nolli (The Logic of the Transition Period), edited by Yeung-hui Rhee, 224–228. Seoul: Changbi.

57.

Rhee, Yeung-hui.2006c. “Gwangbok 32 junyeon-ui banseong” (Reflection on the 32nd Anniversary of Liberation). In vol. 2 of Rhee Yeung-hui jeojakjip (Rhee Yeung-hui’s Collection), edited by Yeung-hui Rhee, 23–48. Seoul: Hangilsa. Originally published in Yeung-hui Rhee, Usang-gwa iseong (Idol and Reason) (Seoul: Hangilsa, 1977).

58.

Rhee, Yeung-hui. 2006d. “Motaekdong-ui g yoyuksasang” (Mao Zedong’s Thought on Education). In vol. 2 of Rhee Yeung-hui jeojakjip (Rhee Yeung-hui’s Collection), edited by Yeung-hui Rhee, 150–181. Seoul: Hangilsa. Originally published in Yeung-hui Rhee, Usang-gwa iseong (Idol and Reason) (Seoul: Hangilsa, 1977).

59.

Rhee, Yeung-hui. 2006e. “0.17 pyeong-ui sam, 7 dollars-ui insaeng” (A Life of 0.17 Pyeong, a Life of Seven Dollars). In vol. 2 of Rhee Yeung-hui jeojakjip (Rhee Yeung-hui’s Collection), edited by Yeung-hui Rhee, 49–52. Seoul: Hangilsa. Originally published in Yeung-hui Rhee, Usang-gwa iseong (Idol and Reason) (Seoul: Hangilsa, 1977).

60.

Rhee, Yeung-hui, and Heon-yeong Im. 2005. Han jisigin-ui sam-gwa sasang: daehwa (The Life and Ideas of an Intellectual: Dialogue). Seoul: Hangilsa.

61.

Robinson, Michael E. 1990. Iljeha munhwajeok minjokjuui (Cultural Nationalism in Colonial Korea). Translated by Min-hwan Kim. Seoul: Nanam. Originally published as Cultural Nationalism in Colonial Korea, 1920–1925 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988).

62.

Rostow, Walt W. 1960a. “Bigongsandang seoneon” (Non-Communist Manifesto) (1). Sasanggye (World of Thought) 78: 147–157.

63.

Rostow, Walt W. 1960b. “Bigongsandang seoneon” (Non-Communist Manifesto) (2). Sasanggye (World of Thought) 79: 317–327.

64.

Rostow, Walt W.1960c. “Bigongsandang seoneon” (Non-Communist Manifesto) (3). Sasanggye (World of Thought) 80: 100–108.

65.

Schwartz, Benjamin. 1964. In Search of Wealth and Power: Yen Fu and the West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

66.

Shon, Seok-choon. 2013. “Rhee Yeung-hui bipan-gwa banbipan-ui nollijeok bipan” (A Logical Critique of Criticism and Anticriticism of Rhee Yeung-hui). Hanguk eollon jeongbo hakbo (Korean Journal of Communication and Information) 61: 118–133.

67.

Sin, Ju-back. 2016. “1960 nyeondae ‘geundaehwaron’-ui hakgye yuip-gwa hanguksa yeongu” (How the “Modernization” Theory Infiltrated the Academic Arena in the 1960s, and the Korean Historical Studies Ever Since). Sahak yongu (Review of Korean History) 125: 45–93.

68.

Suh, Jin-young. 2012. “Kim Jun-yop-gwa jungguk yeongu, geurigo hanbando tongil munje” (Kim Jun-yop and Chinese Studies, and Unification Issue of the Korean Peninsula). In Kim Jun-yop-gwa jungguk (Kim Jun-yop and China), edited by the Social Science Institute, 615–641. Seoul: Nanam.

69.

Tanaka, Stefan. 2004. Ilbon dongyanghak-ui gujo (Japan’s Orient: Rendering Pasts into History). Translated by Yeong-jae Park and Dong-ju Ham. Seoul: Moonji. Originally published as Japan’s Orient: Rendering Pasts into History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).

70.

Yoon, Sang-chul. 2003. “Miguk sahoehak-ui jijeok injeok jibae-wa ‘hangukjeok sahoehak’-ui jiche” (The Intellectual and Human Domination of American Sociology and the Delay of Korean Sociology). In Uri hangmun sok-ui miguk (America in Our Studies), edited by the Korea Progressive Academy Council, 184–209. Seoul: Hanul.

71.

Yu, Yong-tae. 2004. Jisik cheongnyeon-gwa nongmin sahoe-ui hyeongmyeong (Educated Youth and Rural Revolution). Seoul: Moonji.

72.

Yu, Yong-tae. 2017. Dongasiasa-reul boneun nun (Eyes on East Asian History). Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

Korea Journal