The main questions of this article are: (1) how does religion function in the life of migrants? and (2) how do migrants practice their religion in a new place far from their home? This article analyzes the characteristics of Hyehwa-dong Filipino Catholic Community (HFCC) in Korea through ethnographic fieldwork, surveys, and semistructured interviews. The characteristics of HFCC as a migrant community can be seen in three aspects: belief, practices (including rituals and festivals), and community. Firstly, members of HFCC have a strong faith in God, who they believe sent them to Korea and helps them with their life in Korea. Secondly, they more actively practice their religion than when they were in homeland. Various activities allow them to practice Filipino Catholicism. Thirdly, HFCC is a strong network in both practical and spiritual ways. The members not only regard HFCC as a Catholic community but also a spiritual family. In HFCC, Filipinos are able to practice their religious cultural identity. Also, it is a network that allows them to create their own social and religious capital. These characteristics provide Filipino migrants with an opportunity to reaffiliate themselves with the Filipino society in Korea. Furthermore, Hyehwa-dong, known as the Korean SoHo, seems to become Filipino territory every Sunday, namely reterritorialization. Finally, the emergence and growth of HFCC contributes to Korea’s becoming a multicultural country.
Berger, Peter. 1969. The Social Reality of Religion. London: Faber and Faber.
Castillo, Gelia T. 1979. Beyond Manila: Philippine Rural Problems in Perspective. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
Connor, Philip. 2014. Immigrant Faith: Patterns of Immigrant Religion in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Cook, David. 2002. “Forty Years of Religion across Borders: Twilight of a Transnational Field?” In Religion across Borders: Transnational Immigrant Networks, edited by Helen Rose Ebaugh and Janet Saltzman Chafetz, 51–74. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
Cornelio, Jayeel Serano. 2016. Being Catholic in the Contemporary Philippines:Young People Reinterpreting Religion. London: Routledge.
Hagan, Jacqueline Maria. 2002. “Religion and the Process of Migration: A Case Study of Maya Transnational Community.” In Religion across Borders: Transnational Immigrants Networks, edited by Helen Rose Ebaugh and Janet Saltzman Chafetz, 75–92. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
Heelas, Paul, and Linda Woodhead. 2005. The Spiritual Revolution: Why Religion Is Giving Way to Spirituality. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. 2007. “Religion and a Standpoint Theory of Immigrant Social Justice.” In Religion and Social Justice for Immigrants, edited by Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, 3–15. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette, Genelle Gaudinez, and Hector Lara. 2007. “Religious Reenactment on the Line: A Genealogy of Political Religious Hybridity.” In Religion and Social Justice for Immigrants, edited by Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, 122–140. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Iannaccone, Laurence R. 1994. “Why Strict Churches Are Strong.” American Journal of Sociology 99.5: 1180–1211.
Julia, Norlan. 2016. “Strengthening Filipino Migrants’ Faith through Popular Religiosity.”Mission Studies 33.3: 352–375.
Knott, Kim. 1998. “Issues in the Study of Religions and Locality.” Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 10.3: 279–301.
Milani, Olmes. 2014. “Transnational Believers: Understanding the Religious Experience of Peruvian Immigrants Japan.” In Transnational Faiths: Latin-American Immigrants and Their Religions in Japan, edited by Hugo Córdova Quesro and Rafael Shoji, 129–152. Farnham: Ashgate.
Nititham, Diane Sabenacio. 2011. “Migration as Cultural Capital: The Ongoing Dependence on Overseas Filipino Workers.” Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies 48.2: 185–201.
Parekh, Bhikhu. 2000. Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. London: Macmillan Press.
San Juan, Epifanio, Jr. 2009. “Overseas Filipino Workers: The Making of an Asian-Pacific Diaspora.” Global South 3.2: 99–129.
Stark, Rodney, and Roger Finke. 2000. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Statistics Korea. 2016. 2015 ingu jutaek chongjosa bogoseo (2015 Population and Housing Census Report). Daejeon: Statistics Korea.
Sullivan, Kathleen. 2000. “St. Catherine’s Catholic Church: One Church, Parallel Congregations.” In Religion and The New Immigrants: Continuities and Adaptations in Immigrant Congregations, edited by Helen Rose Ebaugh and Janet Saltzman Chafetz, 210–233. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
Tomlinson, John. 1999. Globalization and Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Tondo, Josefina Socorro Flores. 2010. “Popular Religiosity and the Transnational Journey: Inscribing Filipino Identity in the Santo Niño Fiesta in New Zealand.”Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 11.3–4: 219–244.
Vogel, Erica. 2014. “Predestined Migrations: Undocumented Peruvians in South Korean Churches.” City and Society 26.3: 331–351.
Warner, R. Stephen. 1998. “Immigration and Religious Communities in the United States.” In Gathering in Diaspora: Religious Communities and the New Immigration, edited by R. Stephen Warner and Judith G. Wittner, 3–36. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Wiegele, Katharine L. 2005. Investing in Miracles: El Shaddai and the Transformation of Popular Catholicism in Philippines. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Yamada, Masanobu. 2014. “‘Bestowing the Light of the Gospel in Japan’: The Formation of an Ethnic Church in the Dekassegui Community.” In Transnational Faiths: Latin-American Immigrants and Their Religions in Japan, edited by Hugo Córdova Quesro and Rafael Shoji, 53–74. Farnham: Ashgate.