바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

The Four Heavenly Kings of Jikjisa Temple (1665) and Their Significance

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2017, v.57 no.2, pp.129-152
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2017.57.2.129

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

In 2012, a hoard of materials was discovered inside the statues of the Four Heavenly Kings at Jikjisa temple. These included inscriptions informing us when and by whom the statues were made. This study analyzes these written documents and their significance in the broader context of Korean Buddhist art. A handwritten offering record deposited in one of the statues in particular states that they were made in 1665 by a group of monk-sculptors led by a certain Daneung, who was born, ordained, and initiated into his sculptural career in Jeolla-do province, but was reputedly more active in Gyeongsang-do province during the second half of the seventeenth century. With the identity of the sculptor and date of production confirmed, Jikjisa temple sculptures prove to be a rare example among the sets of Four Heavenly Kings statues made during the Joseon period, and indeed the only one known thus far with clear indicators of which of the four cardinal directions each Heavenly King was positioned under

keywords
Four Heavenly Kings Jikjisa temple Ssanggyesa temple Daneung monksculptor Joseon period Korean Buddhist art Buddhist sculpture

Reference

1.

Chang, Choong-sik. 1996. “Hanguk bulhwa sacheonwang-ui baechi hyeongsik”(Placement Pattern of the Four Heavenly Kings in Korean Buddhist Painting). Misul sahak yeongu (Korean Journal of Art History) 211: 29–55.

2.

Chang, Il-soon. 2013. “Joseon hugi sacheonwangsang-ui saengnyeongjwa yeongu”(A Study on Living Creature Pedestals of Four Heavenly Kings Appearing in the Late Joseon Period). Bulgyo misul sahak (Journal of Buddhist Art) 16:143–166.

3.

Choi, Sun-il. 2006. “Joseon hugi jogakseung-ui hwaldong-gwa bulsang yeongu” (A Study on the Activities and Buddhist Statues of Monk-Sculptors in the Late Joseon Period). PhD diss., Hongik University.

4.

Choi, Sun-il. 2009. “Joseon hugi jogakseung-gwa bulsang yangsik-ui byeoncheon”(Buddhist Sculptor-Monks of Late Joseon and Their Stylistic Evolution). Misul sahak yeongu (Korean Journal of Art History) 261: 41–75.

5.

CHA (Cultural Heritage Administration; Munhwajaecheong), and RIBCH (Research Institute of Buddhist Cultural Heritage; Bulgyo munhwajae yeonguso). 2008a. Hanguk-ui sachal munhwajae: Gyeongsangbuk-do (Research Report: Buddhist Relics in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province). 2 vols. Seoul: CHA and RIBCH.

6.

CHA (Cultural Heritage Administration; Munhwajaecheong), and RIBCH (Research Institute of Buddhist Cultural Heritage; Bulgyo munhwajae yeonguso). 2008b. Hanguk-ui sachal munhwajae: Gyeongsanganm-do (Research Report: Buddhist Relics in Gyeongsangnam-do Province). 2 vols. Seoul: CHA and RIBCH.

7.

Jo, Tae-gun. 2011. “17 segi huban myeongbujeon-ui jijang bosalsang-gwa siwangsang yeongu” (A Study on the Ksitigarbha and the Ten Kings Sculptures of the Late Seventeenth-Century Joseon Dynasty). Master’s thesis, Myongji University.

8.

Jo, Tae-gun. 2013. “17 segi huban jogakseung Saengnan Daneung siwangsang yeongu”(A Study on the Ten King Sculptures by the Late Seventeenth-Century Monk-Sculptors Saengnan and Daneung). Dongak misul sahak (Dongak Art History)15: 219–243.

9.

Kim, Eun-jung. 2010. “Daeseungsa daeungjeon-ui mokgaktaeng yeongu” (A Study of the Wooden Relief Panels of Buddhist Images in the Great Shrine Hall of Daeseungsa Temple). Master’s thesis, Seoul National University.

10.

Lee, Kang Kun. 1995. “17 segi buljeon-ui jaegeonyeok” (A Study on the Reconstruction of Main Buddhist Halls in the Seventeenth-Century Joseon). Misul sahak yeongu (Korean Journal of Art History) 208: 39–81.

11.

Lee, Min-hyung. 2013. “17 segi huban-ui jogakseung Daneung-ui bulsang yeongu”(A Study of the Buddhist Statues by the Monk-Sculptor Daneung in the Late Seventeenth Century). Misul sahak yeongu (Korean Journal of Art History)278: 163–194.

12.

Lim, Youngae. 2005. “Suncheon Songgwangsa sacheonwangsang-ui bangwi munjewa Joseong sigi” (The Direction and Production Date of the Four Heavenly Kings in Songgwangsa Temple in Suncheon). Seojihak yeongu (Journal of the Institute of Bibliography) 30: 73–95.

13.

Lim, Youngae. 2010a. “Bukbang damuncheon-ui botap dosang haeseok: dosang hyeongseong wonin-gwa Won·Goryeo ijeon-ui yangsang” (Analysis of Stupa Icons of Vaiśravana: Factors and Patterns in Icon Development before the Yuan and Goryeo Dynasties). Misulsa-wa sigak munhwa (Art History and Visual Culture)9: 86–115.

14.

Lim, Youngae. 2010b. “Joseon sidae sacheonwangsang jonmyeong-ui byeonhwa”(Changes in the Naming of the Four Heavenly Kings of the Joseon Period). Misul sahak yeongu (Korean Journal of Art History) 265: 73–104.

15.

Lim, Youngae. 2011. “Silla bultap tapsin bujosang-ui chui: geumgangyeoksasang-eseo sacheonwangsang-euro” (The Trend of Pagoda Relief in Silla: From Vajrapani to Four Heavenly Kings). Seonsa-wa godae (Prehistory and Ancient History)35: 225–248.

16.

Lim, Youngae. 2014. “Godae bulgyo jogak-ui saengnyeongjwa, hyeongsang-gwa geu uimi” (Forms and Meanings of Living Creatures in Ancient Buddhist Sculp ture). Jungang asia yeongu (Central Asian Studies) 19.1: 35–59.

17.

Lim, Youngae. 2015. “Images of the Four Heavenly Kings in Unified Silla as the Symbol of National Defense.” Buddhist Studies Review 32.2: 271–293.

18.

Park, Do-hwa. 1999. “Songgwangsa obaek nahanjeon-ui nahansang” (Arhats in the 500 Arhats Hall of Songgwangsa Temple). Gangjwa misulsa (Art History Journal) 13: 27–56.

19.

Shim, Joo-wan. 2006. “Yongmunsa mokbulsang-ui jakpung-gwa geu yeonghyang”(The Idiom and Influence of the Wooden Buddhist Images at Yongmunsa Temple). Gangjwa misulsa (Art History Journal) 26.1: 139–163.

20.

Song, Unsok. 2007. “17 segi Joseon wangjo-ui jogakseung-gwa bulsang” (A Study on the Monk-Sculptors and Their Buddhist Sculptures in the Seventeenth-Century Joseon). PhD diss., Seoul National University.

21.

Song, Unsok. 2008. “Joseon 17 segi jogakseung yupa-ui hapdong jageop” (Collaborative Works among Monk-Sculptors and Schools in the Seventeenth-Century Joseon). Misul sahak (Art History) 22: 69–103.

22.

Song, Unsok. 2012. Joseon hugi bulgyo jogaksa (The History of Buddhist Sculptures in the Late Joseon Period). Seoul: Sahoe Pyeongnon.

23.

Yim, Ju-Tak. 2009. “Myeongching gagok suyong-ui yangsang-gwa uimi” (On the Aspects and Meanings of Acceptance of the Mingcheng gequ). Hanguk munhak nonchong (Theses on Korean Literature) 51: 5–50.

Korea Journal