The aim of this article is to examine Seon monk Hyujeong’s interest in Buddhist ritual, focusing on his Unsudan gasa (Verses on the Altar of Cloud and Water), which was the historical product of an anti-Buddhist Confucian society and which stressed the recitation of dharanis and the Buddha’s name as salvific methods. Although a Seon (Zen) monk, Hyujeong’s concern with Buddhist ritual was unlike the role of Zen monks as described by conventional scholarship, which has been heavily influenced by post-19th century Japanese Zen studies. Therefore, this study suggests the need for a reinvestigation of the thought of Hyujeong as a Seon monk as well as of the conventional scholarship of Zen studies. The role of Hyujeong as a pro-ritual Seon monk resonates with recent scholarship positing that East Asian traditions never rejected ritual. Hyujeong’s concern with Buddhist ritual with esoteric elements makes him distinct from Chinese Chan monks, who had no interest in esoteric Buddhism. In addition, Hyujeong’s legacy, which laid emphasis on esoteric Buddhist elements and dependence on others, still carries influence in the monastic circles of contemporary Korea.
This article analyzes the publication, revision, and utilization of the Chosen higashikaiganzu (Chart of East Coast of Korea, CECK) (1875; Chart No. 54) by the Japanese Hydrographic Office (JHO), based on an examination of the Chosen togan fu hakutoku taiteiwan (Korea East Coast with Peter the Great Bay, KEC) (1893), which is a revised version of the CECK. The JHO included Dokdo (Liancourt Rocks) in the CECK, in its subsequent editions, as well as in the KEC. The JHO also compiled directories, matching the charts and based on survey results, and indicated Dokdo in the Chosen suiroshi (Korea Sea Directory), which was published prior to Japan’s incorporation of Dokdo. Further, the Japanese government officially presented charts to the Korean government that indicated Dokdo as Korean territory. Since the CECK and Chosen suiroshi were sold to the general public, their availability greatly contributed to spreading recognition of Dokdo as Korean territory. Accordingly, a comprehensive examination of the Japanese charts CECK and KEC, along with the Chosen suiroshi and Nihon suiroshi (Japan Sea Directory), leads to the conclusion that Japan originally recognized Dokdo as Korean territory.
In democracies, campaign promises are considered important indictors that voters use to make voting decisions. Despite its normative and theoretical importance in elections and campaigns, breaking a campaign promise has been rather frequent among elected officials. What affects this tendency of legislators to break or keep their campaign promises? By using campaign promise data compiled by one of the largest NGOs in South Korea over the past four years (2008–2012), this article attempts to explain what factors lead South Korean legislators to more or less keep their promises. The findings suggest that legislative committees and policy issues promised in a campaign, along with an individual legislator’s legislative action in the National Assembly, significantly affect the fulfillment of such promises.
This article aims to analyze the changes in architectural forms of 161 ordinary buildings in Seoul’s Jongno district during the 1950s and 1960s and to evaluate the meaning of such changes from the perspective of the modernization of ordinary 1960s architecture and the establishment of modern architecture. Ordinary architecture is not designed by formally trained architects and thus is not sophisticated in design. However, it is socially and culturally meaningful as an outcome of the acceptance of architectural forms driven by public tastes. Korean architectural forms of the 1950s and 1960s were modernized through post-war reconstruction and economic development, increased production, and the modernization of society. An examination of this period shows that the forms of ordinary Korean architecture underwent change and became modernized. In particular, the universalization of the reinforced concrete structure represents the reception of functional and rational properties along with changes in facade design and floorplans. Ordinary Korean architecture borrowed from modern Japanese and Western architectural forms while transforming them into its own. An analysis of ordinary Korean architecture of the 1950s and 1960s reveals that the modernization in architecture that was incomplete during the Japanese colonial period became popularized in South Korea of the 1960s.
While Korea-Nordic relations predate the liberation of the Korean peninsula from Japanese occupation, developments on the Korean peninsula became an issue in the foreign policymaking of the Nordic countries first with the division of the peninsula by the two superpowers and the move of the Korea Question to the newly established United Nations. The deliberations behind the decision by the Nordic countries to act on the United Nations request for Nordic assistance in the defense of the recently established Republic of Korea was influenced not only by humanitarian issues but also, in particular, by national security considerations Nordic countries faced in the early Cold War. All three Nordic countries decided against deploying military units in the Korean War and instead decided to assist with medical resources. Nevertheless, non-military participation provided an impetus, driven to a significant degree by the individuals involved in Nordic medical assistance, to seek diplomatic normalization between the Republic of Korea and the Nordic countries, which was finally achieved in 1959.
One salient feature of modern democracy is that people elect their head of state, either directly or indirectly. This popular democracy is the result of revolutions in England, the USA, and France. However, this feature is also present in Confucian democracy as asserted by the Korean thinker Dasan Jeong Yak-yong. As such, this article presents a comparative analysis of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a founding framer of modern democracy, and Dasan, a Korean Confucian and democratic thinker. Rousseau argued that the people had the right to elect their sovereign directly and dismiss him if he harmed peace and equality in the city-state (in this case, Geneva). However, Dasan claimed that lords chosen by the people had the right to elect the ruler and remove or even execute a tyrant if it were justified. Although Dasan and Rousseau did not influence each other, they made the common argument that the people had a right to elect and remove their chief. Rousseau stated that the people could elect their ruler directly, but that they should remove that ruler in a peaceful way through an assembly. Dasan suggested that the people elect their ruler indirectly and remove a tyrant through justified revolution. Their respective conceptions of democracy both presuppose that the ruler should act on behalf of the people. Thus, this article analyzes the claims of these two thinkers when a ruler causes misery to the people.