바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

Familist Individualization of Ever-single Korean Youths in Their Late 30s: Individualization and Transformed Familism in the Neoliberal Era

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2016, v.56 no.1, pp.33-60
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2016.56.1.33

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explain how the recent phenomenon of individualization among unmarried young people in their late 30s has been unfolding in relation to familism in Korea. For this purpose, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 people of the same birth cohort of 1975 who were victims of the economic crisis leading to IMF stewardship at the end of 1990s and who turned 37 years old in 2012, disembedded from the protective institutions of the first modernity according to the term coined by characterization of Ulrich Beck. The results indicated that the process of individualization in Korea lacking institutional protections under the harsh neoliberalism strongly depends on family and familism as a safety net, showing three types of the relationship between familism and individualization: a type of strong disembedment from and weak reembedment in the family; a type of concurrence of weak disembedment from and strong reembedment in family; and a type of individualization by utter coercion with no family to depend on. Finally, the transformed familism, as the simultaneous cause and effect of individualization, was composed not only of a normative element of filial piety toward parents, but also of multidimensions, such as familism as a relationship, and a reciprocal relationship shown in care provided by the parents.

keywords
familism individualization familist individualization neoliberalism patrilineality intergenerational relationship disembedment reembedment

Reference

1.

Ahn, Ho-yong 1991. “Hanguk gajok-ui hyeongtae bullyu-wa haekgajokhwa-ui uimi” (Classification of the Form of Korean Family and the Meaning of Nuclearization). In Hanguk-ui sahoe-wa yeoksa (Society and History of Korea), edited by the Committee for Collection of Papers in Commemoration of Professor Choi Jae-seok’s Retirement, 186–217. Seoul: Iljisa.

2.

Bae, Eun-Kyung 2009. “‘Gyeongje wigi’-wa hanguk yeoseong” (“Economic Crisis” and Korean Women). Peminiseum yeongu (Issues in Feminism) 9.2: 39–82.

3.

Beck, Ulrich 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications. Originally published as Risikogesellschaft-Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1986).

4.

Beck, Ulrich, and E. Beck-Gernsheim 1995. The Normal Chaos of Love. Cambridge, Mass.: Polity Press. Originally published as Ganz Normale Chaos der Liebe (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1990).

5.

Beck, Ulrich. 2002. Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and Its Social and Political Consequences. London: Sage Publications.

6.

Beck, Ulrich and E. Grande 2010. “Varieties of Second Modernity: the Cosmo politan Turn in Social and Political Theory and Research.” British Journal of Sociology 61.3: 409–443.

7.

Bruckner, Hannah, and Karl U. Mayer 2005. “Destandardization of the Life Course: What It Might Mean? And If It Means Anything, Whether It Actually Took Place?” Advances in Life Course Research 9: 27–53.

8.

Chang, Kyung-Sup, 2009. “Gajok inyeom-ui ubaljeok dawonseong” (Accidental Pluralism of Family Ideology). Gajok, saengae, jeongchi gyeongje: Apchukjeok geundaeseong-ui misijeok gicho (Family, Life, Politics and Economy: Micro Basis of Compressed Modernity), 94–136. Paju: Changbi.

9.

Chang, Kyung-Sup and Song Min-Young 2010. “The Stranded Individualizer under Compressed Modernity: South Korean Women in Individualization without Individualism.” British Journal of Sociology 61.3: 539–564.

10.

Cho, Cheung-moon 1997. “Hanguk sahoe chinjok gwangye-ui yanggyehwa gyeonghyang- e gwanhan yeongu” (The Study of the Bilateralization of Korean Kin Relationship). Hanguk yeoseonghak (Journal of Korean Women’s Studies) 13.1: 87–114.

11.

Cho, Eun. 2000. “Gabujangjeok jilseohwa-wa buingwon-ui yakhwa” (Patriarchal Order and Wife’s Inheritance Right in the Early Joseon). Hanguk yeoseonghak (Journal of Korean Women’s Studies) 16.2: 5–34.

12.

Cho, Hae-joang 2010. “Youth, Labor and Neoliberal Governmentality in South Korea.” Paper presented at symposium, “Youth, Labor, and Neoliberal Governmentality in East Asia,” University of Pittsburgh, March 5–6.

13.

Choi, Jae-seok 1982. Hanguk gajok jedosa yeongu (History of Family Institution in Korea). Seoul: Iljisa.

14.

Dannefer, Dale 2003. “Toward a Global Geography of the Life Course.” In Handbook of the Life Course, edited by Jeylan T. Mortimer and Michael J. Shanahan, 647–659. New York: Springer.

15.

Denzin, Norman 1989. Interpretive Biography. London: Sage Publications.

16.

Finch, Janet, and Jennifer Mason 1993. Negotiating Family Responsibilities. New York: Routledge.

17.

Furlong, Andy 2006. “Forward.” In A New Youth?: Young People, Generations, and Family Life, edited by C. Leccardi and E. Ruspini. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.

18.

Galland, Oliver 2007. “Leaving Home and Family Relations in France.” Journal of Family Issues 18: 645–670.

19.

Giddens, Anthony 1992. The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality, Love, and Eroticism in Modern Societies. Cambridge, Mass.: Polity Press.

20.

Hahm, In-hee 2013. “‘Gukga huwon gajokjuui (State-sponsored Familism)’-e tuyeongdoen yeokseol” (Dilemmas Reflected by the State-sponsored Familism in a Singapore Case). Gajok-gwa munhwa (Family and Culture) 25.2: 1–27.

21.

Heinz, Walter, and Victor Marshall eds. 2003. Social Dynamics of the Life Course: Transitions, Institutions, and Interrelations. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

22.

Jones, Gill 2005. “Social Protection Policies for Young People.” In Young People in Europe: Labor Market and Citizenship, edited by H. Bradley and J. van Hoof, 41–62. Bristol, England: Policy Press.

23.

Kim, Hye-Kyung 2009. “Park Chung-hee chejeha ‘haekgajok’ damnon-ui byeonhwa gwajeong-gwa iwon gujo yeongu” (The “Nuclear” Family Discourse during the Park Chung-hee Regime: Its Change and Dualism). Sahoe-wa yeoksa (Society and History) 82: 169–212.

24.

Kim, Hye-Kyung. 2011. “Work-Family Reconciliation: Women’s Work and Kinship Relationships since the 1960s.” In Korean Families: Continuity and Change, edited by Korean Family Studies Association, 297–330. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.

25.

Kim, Hye-Kyung. 2013. “Bugye gajokjuui-ui silpae?” (Failure of the Patrilineal Stem Family System?). Hanguk sahoehak (Korean Journal of Sociology) 49.2: 101– 142.

26.

Kim, Hye-Kyung, and Lee Soon-Mi 2012. “Gaeinhwa-wa wiheom” (Individualization and Risk: Uncertainty in the “Adulthood” Transition and Stratification among Women’s Lives in Korea at the End of the twentieth Century). Peminiseum yeongu (Issues in Feminism) 12.1: 35–72.

27.

Kim Hye-Yeoung 2007. Bihon irin gagu-ui gajok uisik mit saenghwal siltae josa (The Survey Report on the Family Attitude and Life Condition of the Unmarried Single-Person Households). Seoul: Korean Women’s Development Institute.

28.

Kim, Hyun-Ju, Lee Sun-Eee, and Lee Yeo-Bong 2013. “Chogi seongingi-ui jeongcheseong guseong-e gwanhan yeongu” (Identity Formation of Young Adulthood). Gajok-gwa munhwa (Family and Culture) 25.3: 54–96.

29.

Kim, Hyun-Ok 2002. “Gajokjuui uisik-ui guseong-gwa byeonhwa” (Constitution and Change of Familial Consciousness). Gajok-gwa munhwa (Family and Culture) 14.1: 3–30.

30.

Kim, Young-jeong 2012. “Imagining ‘Home’: Migration Experiences of Korean Women Living in Britain.” Paper presented at symposium of Institute for East Asian Studies, Sung Kong Hoe University, Seoul, April 20–21.

31.

Leccardi, Carmen 2006. “Facing Uncertainty: Temporality and Biographies in the New Century.” In A New Youth?: Young People, Generations and Family Life, edited by Carmen Leccardi and Elisabetta Ruspini, 15–40. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate.

32.

Lee, Hyo-Jae 2003. Joseonjo sahoe-wa gajok (Family and the Society of the Joseon Dynasty). Seoul: Hanul.

33.

Lee, Su-in 2010. “Jipdanjuui hyeongseong yoin-gwa gwajeong, seongbyeol chai-e daehan yeongu” (A Study on the Factors, Processes, and Gender Differences of Collectivism Formation). Gyeongje-wa sahoe (Economy and Society) 88: 256–299.

34.

Lieblich, Amia, and Ruthellen Josselson 1998. Interpreting Experience: The Narrative Study of Lives. London: Sage Publications.

35.

Ma, Kyoung-Hee, and Lee Soon-Mi 2012. “Laipeukoseu jaryeo sujip bangbeopeuroseo saengaesa dallyeok” (Life History Calendar as a Methodology of Data Collecting for Life Course Research). Sahoe gwahak yeongu (Social Science Studies) 36.2: 271–292.

36.

McAdams, Dan P. 1993. The Stories We Live By: Personal Myths and the Making of the Self. New York and London: Guilford Press.

37.

Mills, Melinda 2007. “Individualization and the Life Course: Toward a Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence.” In Contested Individualization, edited by Cosmo Howard, 61–79. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

38.

Mills, Melinda, Hans-Peter Blossfeld, and Erick Klijzing 2005. “Becoming an Adult in Uncertain Times: A 14-Country Comparison of the Losers of Globalization.” In Globalization, Uncertainty, and Youth in Society, edited by Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Erik Klijzing, Melinda Mills, and Karin Kruz, 438– 459. New York: Routledge.

39.

Nahm, Choon-ho, and Namgoong Myoung-hee 2012. “Saengae gwajeong-ui talpyojunhwa gyeonghyang-e daehan gyeongheomjeok yeongu” (An Empirical Research on the De-standardization of Life Course). Jiyeok sahoe yeongu (Journal of Regional Studies) 20.2: 91–128.

40.

Newman, Katherine, and Sofya Apteker 2007. “Sticking Around: Delayed Departure from the Parental Nest in Western Europe.” In The Price of Independence: The Economics of Early Adulthood, edited by Sheldon Danziger and Cecilia Elena Rouse, 207–230. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

41.

Oh, Chang-Eun 2007. “Urideul-eu ilgeureojin yeokmang, haeoe yeohang” (Our Distorted Desire, Overseas Travel, 1987–1997), Presian (Pressian), July 6, 2007, retrieved from http://www.pressian.com/news/imagepressian/detail. html?no=84709.

42.

Ochiai, Emiko. 2011. “Unsustainable Societies: The Failure of Familialism in East Asia’s Compressed Modernity.” Historical Social Research 36: 219–245.

43.

Ochiai, Emiko. 2012. “Individualization and Familialism in Japan’s Semi-Compressed Modernity: In Comparison to East Asia and Europe.” Paper presented at the Annual Spring Conference of the Korean Sociological Association, June 22–23.

44.

Ok, Sun-Hwa. 1989. “Hyeondae hangugin-ui gajokjuui gachi-e gwanhan yeongu” (The Family Value of the Modern Korean). PhD diss., Seoul National University.

45.

Park, Hye-gyeong. 2011. “Gyeongje wigisi gajokjuui damnon-ui jaeguseong-gwa seong pyeongdeung damnon-ui hangye” (The Reconstruction of Familism Discourses and the Limitations of Gender Equality Discourse during the South Korean Economic Crisis). Hanguk yeoseonghak (Journal of Korean Women’s Studies) 27.3: 71–106.

46.

Park, Keong-Suk, Kim Young-hye, and Kim Hyun-suk. 2005. “Namnyeo gyeolhon sigi yeonjang-ui juyeo wonin” (Main Causes of Delayed Marriage among Korean Men and Women). Hanguk inguhak (Korea Journal of Population Studies) 28.2: 33–62.

47.

Park, Tong-Hee. 2004. “Gajokjuui gaenyeom-ui bunhal-gwa gyeongheomjeok geomto” (Construction of Korean Familism). Gajok-gwa munhwa (Family and Culture) 16.2: 93–125.

48.

Putney, Norella M., and Vern L. Bengston. 2001. “Families, Intergenerational Relationships, and Kinkeeping in Midlife.” In Handbook of Midlife Development, edited by Margie E. Lachman, 528–570. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

49.

Riessman, Catherine Kohler. 1993. Narrative Analysis. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

50.

Rossi, Giovanna. 1997. “The Nestlings: Why Young Adults Stay at Home Longer: The Italian Case.” Journal of Family Issues 18: 627–644.

51.

Scabini, Eugenia, and Vittorio Cigoli. 1997. “Young Adult Families: An Evolutionary Slowdown or a Breakdown in the Generational Transition?” Journal of Family Issues 18: 608–626.

52.

Shim, Young-hee. 2010. “Gajok jihyangjeok gaeinhwa-wa icha geundae” (“Family- Oriented” Individualization and Second-Modernity: An Analysis of Transnational Marriages in Korea). Paper presented at the Annual Autumn Conference of the Korean Sociological Association, December 17–18.

53.

Shin, Kyung-Ah. 2013. “‘Sijanghwadoen gaeinhwa’-wa bokji yokgu” (“Marketized Individualization” and Welfare Needs). Gyeongje-wa sahoe (Eonomy and Society) 99: 266–303.

54.

Silverstein, Merril, and Vern L. Bengtson. 1997. “Intergenerational Solidarity and the Structure of Adult Child-Parent Relationships in American Families.” American Journal of Sociology 103.2: 429–460.

55.

Sung, Kyu-taik. 2005. Care and Respect for the Elderly in Korea: Filial Piety in Modern Times in East Asia. Seoul: Jimoondang.

56.

Sung, Kyu-taik. 2013. Hangugin-ui seoro dolbom (Reciprocal Care of Korean: Practice of Love and Service). Seoul: Idam Books.

57.

Suzuki, Munenori, et al. 2010. “Individualizing Japan: Searching for Its Origin in First Modernity.” British Journal of Sociology 61.3: 513–538.

58.

Van Oorschot, Wim. 2007. “Culture and Social Policy: A Developing Field of Study.” International Journal of Social Welfare 16.2: 129–139.

59.

Yang, Hyun-Ah. 2011. Hanguk gajokbeop ilkki (Reading the Family Law of Korea). Paju: Changbi.

60.

Yang, Ok-kyung. 2002. “Gajokjuui gachigwan-e ttareun hangugin-ui bokji uisik yeongu” (Familism and Welfare Consciousness in Korea). Hanguk sahoe bokjihak (Journal of Korean Academy of Social Welfare) 51: 229–256.

Korea Journal