바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

Recreational Hiking in South Korea: Transforming the Body, Transforming the Land

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2015, v.55 no.3, pp.80-102
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2015.55.3.80
Frank Dax (Graduate Center / City Univ. of New York)
  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

Mountains have long held a central role in Korean culture, a role that has been newly highlighted by the surging popularity of recreational hiking in South Korea. And yet, to the extent that hiking foregrounds the significance of the mountains, it also foregrounds the significance of the body in South Korean society today, as both the land and the body are implicated in the growth of hiking. After charting the historical and cultural background of the hiking phenomenon, which has ascended to a national pastime, this article will analyze the meanings attached to the mountains and the body as a result. What emerges from the analysis is evidence of recreational hiking’s truly transformational potential, its capacity to recreate. In terms of the body, the ritual and performative dimensions hiking has acquired unlock occasions for physical and spiritual transformation, as well as structure new opportunities for the playful and ethical reinvention of the self. In regard to the land, hiking literally transforms the faces of mountains as its mass appeal challenges competing claims for land use and development. Equally important, however, are the ideological transformations of mountain space that sustain hiking’s material claims.

keywords
hiking mountains Korea recreation the body ritual leisure

Reference

1.

Belk, Russell W., and Janeen Arnold Costa. 1998. “The Mountain Man Myth: A Contemporary Consuming Fantasy.” Journal of Consumer Research 25.3: 218-240.

2.

Belk, Russell W., Melanie Wallendorf, and John F. Sherry, Jr. 1989. “The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behavior: Theodicy on the Odyssey.” Journal of Consumer Research 16.1: 1-38.

3.

Chang, Ju-Ho. 2002. “Korea: The Various Roles of Sport for All in Society.” In Worldwide Experiences and Trends in Sport for All, edited by Lamartine DaCosta and Ana Miragaya, 133-174. Oxford: Meyer and Meyer Sport.

4.

Cho, Myung-Rae. 2004. “Emergence and Evolution of Environmental Discourses in South Korea.” Korea Journal 44.3: 138-164.

5.

Chung, Gene-Woong. 2008. “Stigma, Lifestyle, and Self in Later Life: The Meaning and Paradox of Older Men’s Hang-Out Culture at Jongmyo Park.” Korea Journal 48.4: 93-114.

6.

Creighton, Millie. 1997. “Consuming Rural Japan: The Marketing of Tradition and Nostalgia in the Japanese Travel Industry.” Ethnology 36.3: 239-254.

7.

Eun, Ki-Soo. 2008. “Population Aging and Social Strategies for Aging Problems in Korea.” Korea Journal 48.4: 5-34.

8.

Gennep, Arnold van. 1909. The Rites of Passage. Translated by Monika B. Vizedom and Gabrielle L. Caffee. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

9.

Greider, Thomas, and Lorraine Garkovich. 1994. “Landscapes: The Social Construction of Nature and the Environment.” Rural Sociology 59.1: 1-24.

10.

Howe, Neil, Richard Jackson, and Keisuke Nakashima. 2007. The Aging of Korea:Demographics and Retirement Policy in the Land of the Morning Calm. Washington, D.C.: The Center for Strategic and International Studies.

11.

Jeong, Young-seon. 2003. “Bukhansan: The Mountain in the City.” Koreana 17.1:76-83.

12.

Jung, Min. 2012. “Constructing Sectarian Pilgrimage Sites in Neo-Confucian Schools.” Korean Histories 3.1: 23-34. Accessed June 30, 2014. http://www. koreanhistories.net/index.php?limitstart=4.

13.

Kaplan, Uri. 2010. “Images of Monasticism: The Temple Stay Program and the Re-Branding of Korean Buddhist Temples.” Korean Studies 34: 127-46.

14.

Katz, Stephen. 2000. “Busy Bodies: Activity, Aging, and the Management of Everyday Life.” Journal of Aging Studies 14.2: 135-52.

15.

Keum, Jang-tae. 1994. “Mountains: Home of Korean Thought.” Koreana 8.4: 10-17.

16.

Kim, Duk-muk. 2004. “Bukhansan Keeps Alive Shaman Traditions.” Koreana 18.1:10-11.

17.

Kim, Moon-Kyum. 2005. “The 1997 Financial Crisis and Changing Patterns of Consumption and Leisure in Korea.” Korea Journal 45.3: 58-85.

18.

Kim, Woo-sun. 2004. “People Who Climb Mt. Bukhansan: Bukhansan Welcomes Recreational Hikers and World-Class Climbers.” Koreana 18.1: 26-31.

19.

Kim, Young-ju. 2013. “Amid Economic Downturn, Koreans Go Gung-ho for Camping.”Koreana 27.2: 84-87.

20.

La Shure, Charles. 2009. “Popularity of Mountain Climbing on the Rise.” Koreana 23.2: 83-86.

21.

Lee, Hongkyun. 2004. “Environmental Awareness and Environmental Practice in Korea.” Korea Journal 44.3: 165-184.

22.

Lee, Sung-boo. 2004. “Mt. Bukhansan’s Charm and Inspiration: The Prose Inspired by Samgaksan.” Koreana 18.1: 24-25.

23.

Mansvelt, Juliana. 1997. “Working at Leisure: Critical Geographies of Ageing.” Area 29.4: 289-298.

24.

Mason, David A. 1999. Spirit of the Mountains. Seoul: Hollym.

25.

Mason, David A.. 2011a. “Republic of Korea: Baekdudaegan Trail.” In Religious Tourism in Asia and the Pacific, 207-220. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization.

26.

Mason, David A.. 2011b. The Korean Forest Culture of the Baekdu Daegan. The Korean Forest Service. http://issuu.com/hikekorea/docs/kfs_booklet_final_standard_size.

27.

Miller, Carl. 1963. “Korean Mountains.” Korea Journal 3.9: 26-28.

28.

Mitchell, Timothy. 2001. “Making the Nation: The Politics of Heritage in Egypt.” In Consuming Tradition, Manufacturing Heritage, edited by Nezar AlSayyad, 212-239. London: Routledge.

29.

Moon, Seungsook. 2008. “Buddhist Temple Food in South Korea: Interests and Agency in the Reinvention of Tradition in the age of Globalization.” Korea Journal 48.4: 147-180.

30.

Moore, Alexander. 1980. “Walt Disney World: Bounded Ritual Space and the Playful Pilgrimage Center.” Anthropological Quarterly 53.4: 207-218.

31.

Mormont, Marc. 1987. “Rural Nature and Urban Natures.” Sociologia Ruralis 27.1:3-20.

32.

O’Neill, Karen M. 1996. “The International Politics of National Parks.” Human Ecology 24.4: 521-539.

33.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 2009. “Chapter 8: Temple Stay Program, Korea.” In The Impact of Culture on Tourism, 115-127. Paris: Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development.

34.

Pai, Hyung Il, and Timothy R. Tangherlini, eds. 1998. Nationalism and the Construction of Korean Identity. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies.

35.

Park, Hyung Yu. 2009. “Heritage, Tourism, and National Identity: An Ethnographic Study of Changdeokgung Palace.” Korea Journal 49.4: 163-186.

36.

Park, Jung-won. 2011. “Discovering Korea: The Great Mountain Range Changed My Life.” Koreana 25.4: 60-63.

37.

Pretes, Michael. 2003. “Tourism and Nationalism.” Annals of Tourism Research 30.1: 125-142.

38.

Robertson, Jennifer. 1988. “Furusato Japan: The Culture and Politics of Nostalgia.”International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 1.4: 494-518.

39.

Ryu, Je-Hun, and Doo-Hee Won. 2013. “The Modern Production of Multiple Meanings of the Baekdudaegan Mountain System.” Korea Journal 53.3: 103-132.

40.

Stebbins, Robert A. 1982. “Serious Leisure: A Conceptual Statement.” Pacific Sociological Review 25.2: 251-272.

41.

Svarstad, Hanne. 2010. “Why Hiking? Rationality and Reflexivity Within Three Categories of Meaning Construction.” Journal of Leisure Research 42.1: 91-110.

42.

Ten, Victoria. 2013. “Ki (氣)-related Language Behavior and Experience in Psycho-Physical Practices of Contemporary Korea.” Paper presented at the 26th AKSE Conference, Vienna, July 6-8.

43.

Turner, Victor. 1969. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Chicago:Aldine.

44.

Wigen, Karen. 2005. “Discovering the Japanese Alps: Meiji Mountaineering and the Quest for Geographical Enlightenment.” Journal of Japanese Studies 31.1:1-26.

45.

Yarnal, Careen, Julie Son, and Toni Liechty. 2011. “‘She was Buried in Her Purple Dress and Her Red Hat and All of Our Members Wore Full ‘Red Hat Regalia’to Celebrate Her Life’: Dress, Embodiment and Older Women’s Leisure.” Journal of Aging Studies 25: 52-61.

Korea Journal