From the 17th century onwards, Joseon society began to see medical practitioners who were not ashamed of searching for profits. These practitioners acted as agents and led Korea towards commercialization. However, Western missionaries and the colonial government slowed the pace of commercialization. Both of them performed medical treatment free of charge as a means to settle in Korea as quickly as possible. Their action consequently prevented Koreans from growing into active consumers. Nevertheless, they were not powerful enough to block the commercialization of medicine. Western missionaries and the colonial government began to retreat from their policy of charity. Furthermore, Korean doctors who had studied Western medicine tried to distance themselves from this benevolent art. They began to blame Korean patients who stuck to old medical ethics and set their sights on the inevitable pursuit of profit. Because of this desire, Korean patients would have no choice but to change, which was the primary reason the status of Korean patients changed from subjects to consumers.
Allen, H. N. 1885. “Medical Work in Korea.” The Foreign Missionary 40: 74–76.
Allen, H. N. 1908. Things Korean: A Collection of Sketches and Anecdotes, Missionary and Diplomatic. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company.
Allen, H. N., and J. W. Heron. 1886. First Annual Report of the Korean Governmental Hospital. Yokohama: R. Meiklejohn & Co.
Avison, Oliver R. 1901. Annual Report of the Imperial Korean Hospital. Seoul:Methodist Publishing House.
Japanese Government-General of Korea. Police Bureau. 1935. Joseon gyeongmu gaeyo 朝鮮警務槪要 (An Outline on Police Affairs in Korea). Seoul: Japanese Government-General of Korea.
Jo, Heonyeong. 1997. “Hanbang uihak-ui wigi-reul apdugo” (Facing the Crisis of Korean Traditional Medicine). Hanuihak-ui bipan-gwa haeseol (The Criticism and Explanation of Korean Traditional Medicine). Seoul: Sonamoo.
Hanseong Uisahoe. 1933. Hanseong uisa hoebo (Bulletin of Medical Doctors in Seoul). Seoul: Hanseong Uisahoe.
Kim, Dong-in. 1932. “Uisa wonmanggi” (Blaming Doctors). Donggwang (Brightness in East) 4.
Kim, Ung-gyu. 1939. “Geundae byeongwon manhwagyeong” (A Kaleidoscopic View on Modern Hospitals). Jogwang (Morning Light) 9.
Lee, Jae-gon. 1935. “Uisa-roseo uisa-ege bonaeneun go-eon” (As a Doctor, I Give a Doctor Frank Advice). Jogwang (Morning Light) 12.
O, Geung-seon. 1937. “Cheongnyeon uisa-ege” (To Young Doctors). Jogwang (Morning Light) 1.
O, Geung-seon. 1941. “Don beoneun uisa boda byeong gochineun uisa-ro” (Be a Good Doctor Rather than a Rich Doctor). Jogwang (Morning Light) 3.
Severance Union Medical College. 1924. Annual Report for Fiscal Year 1923–1924.
Severance Union Medical College. 1933. Catalogue 1932–1933.
Shidehara, Tan 幣原袒. 1919. Chosen kyoikuron 朝鮮敎育論 (Essays on Education in Korea). Tokyo: Domeikan.
Sin, Pil-ho. 1929. “Gyeongseong sinae gaeeobui-ui aehwa” (A Sad Story of a Medical Practitioner in Seoul). Severance gyou hoebo (The Severance Bulletin) 12:57–58.
The Institute of the History of Christianity in Korea, ed. 1993. “Annual Medical Report in 1886.” In Annual Report of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Korea Mission 1884-1943. Seoul: The Institute of the History of Christianity in Korea.
Yang, Won-cheol. 1933. “Insuldaun uisul-eul wihayeo” (For the Truest Medicine). Sindonga (New East Asia) 17.
Yu, Sang-gyu. 1935. “Seburanseu byeongwon munje-reul jungsim-euro” (On the Issue of Severance Hospital). Sindonga (New East Asia) 42.
Woods, George W. 1984. Naval Surgeon in Yi Korea: The Journal of George Woods. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.
Eckert, Carter. J. et al. 1990. Korean Old and New. Seoul: Ilchokak.
Kim, Ho. 1998. “18-segi huban geogyeong sajok-ui wisaeng-gwa uiryo (A Medical Life of a Nobleman in Late 18th Century Seoul).” Seoulhak yeongu (The Journal of Seoul Studies) 11: 113–144.
Kim, Seongsu. 2009. “Joseon hugi sajeok uiryo-ui seongjang-gwa uieop-e daehan insik jeonhwan” (Re-evaluation of the Medical Practice and the Medicine in the Late Joseon Dynasty). Uisahak (Korean Journal of Medical History) 18.1:43–68.
Kim, Yongsop. 2005. “The Two Courses of Agrarian Reform in Korea’s Modernization.”Landlords, Peasants and Intellectuals in Modern Korea, edited by Pang Kie-Chung and Michael D. Shin. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Lee, Gyudae. 2009. Joseon sigi hyangchon sahoe yeongu (A Study on Local Society in Joseon Dynasty). Seongnam: Singu.
Lee, Heungki. 2010. “19-segi mal 20-segi cho uiyageop-ui byeonhwa-wa gaeeobui”(Changes of the Medico-Pharmaceutical Profession and Private Practice from the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century). Uisahak (Korean Journal of Medical History) 19.2: 343–383.
Lee, Hyunsook. 2012. “Hanguk uihaksa-ui jungse gijeom” (The Starting Point of Medieval Medicine in Korea). Hanguk godaesa tamgu (The Search for Ancient History in Korea) 10: 237–262.
Lee, Mahnyoul. 2003. Hanguk gidokgyo uiryosa (A History of Christian Medical Work in Korea). Seoul: Acanet.
Park, Hyoung Woo. 2002. Jejungwon. Seoul: Mom-gwa Maeum.
Park, Yunjae. 2005. Hanguk geundae uihak-ui giwon (The Origin of the Modern Korean Medical System). Seoul: Hyean.
Park, Yunjae. 2007. “Iljeha uisa gyecheung-ui seongjang-gwa jeongcheseong hyeongseong”(The Growth of the Medical Doctors during the Japanese Occupation Period and their Development of Identity). Yoksa-wa hyeonsil (Quarterly Review of Korean History) 63: 163–189.
Park, Yunjae. 2009. “Joseon chongdokbu-ui jibang uiryo jeongchaek-gwa uiryo sobi (Japanese Government-General’s Policy of Local Medicine and Local Consumptions of Medical Service).” Yeoksa munje yeongu (Critical Studies on Modern Korean History) 21: 161–183.
Shin, Dongwon. 1997. Hanguk geundae bogeon uiryosa (A Medical History of Modern Korea). Seoul: Hanul.
Shin, Dongwon. 2000. “Hanguk uiryo yull-ui yeoksajeok gochal” (History of Medical Ethics in Korea). Uisahak (Korean Journal of Medical History) 9.2: 163–204.
Shin, Dongwon. 2006. “Joseon hugi uiyak saenghwal-ui byeonhwa” (A Change of Medical Life in the Late Joseon Dynasty). Yeoksa bipyeong (Critical Review of History) 75: 344–391.