This article examines South Korean citizens’ perspectives on global citizenship revealed in their public discourse in comparison with the outlooks that emerged in the landmark debate on patriotism and cosmopolitanism in the United States between moral philosopher Martha Nussbaum and her critics. Three key findings emerge: (1) in contrast with American skeptics of global citizenship who emphasize political loyalties and liberal patriotism, South Korean skeptics lean away from political allegiances in favor of traditional culture and identity; (2) themes such as reconciliation and poverty are discussed more prominently in the South Korean discourse than the American one; and (3) global citizenship debates in South Korea are bound up with anxiety about globalization and its accompanying issues and dynamics, such as Americanization, cultural shifts, and the country’s economic competitiveness. South Korean global citizenship discourse enriches our broader understanding of patriotism and cosmopolitanism by illustrating how a rising democracy can shift gradually toward globally-minded political thinking while also focusing heavily on the protection and preservation of what is special and distinct within Korean culture.
It was during the late nineteenth century that the British began to develop a distinct image of Korea, irrespective of whether the image corresponded to reality. By examining late nineteenth-century British newspaper articles that discuss Korea, this study reveals the image of Korea held by the British people during that time, and the ways in which this image emerged. First of all, articles discussing Korea’s political and social situation—namely, the king, government officials, and the working and living conditions of people—are reviewed. Secondly, we examine descriptions in these articles of what may loosely be called the “cultural domain,” which includes clothing, religion, and customs, for example. Finally, British newspaper accounts of Korea’s relations with China and Japan are analyzed. Through a systematic examination of the way Korea was depicted by British newspapers, the most popular source of information in late nineteenth-century British society, this study ultimately attempts to show that the image of Korea that they sketched was framed by Orientalist assumptions and based on their knowledge of the relatively familiar Chinese and Japanese.
This study examines the socioeconomic advancement of Korean immigrants in Californiafrom 1905 to 1920. Based on county archives, special collections, oral histories,U.S. government documents, contemporary studies, and newspapers, this studyanalyzes how the Korean immigrants in California were influenced by the WorldWar I rice boom and made efforts to develop their status in California at the start ofthe twentieth century. Successful rice cultivation started in California around 1912and this new agricultural development provided opportunities for Koreans to makethe transition from migratory farm laborers to rice farmers. This study presents theunique adjustment pattern of exceptional Korean immigrants who made significantefforts to adjust to Californian society and improve their socioeconomic status; however,in this process, they continued to strongly express their Korean identity and contributedto Korean independence rather than develop an outward loyalty to theUnited States. Korean immigrants’ successful adjustment to California resulted fromtheir combined efforts to maintain their Korean identity, overcome racial discriminationthat denied them citizenship rights, and promote the upward mobility of ethnicKoreans.
This study examines married women’s intentions to have additional children and found that the social sharing of childcare was not a significant factor. The data used for this analysis was the 2009 National Survey of Marriage and Fertility (NSMF), collected through interviews conducted between June 1 and July 17, 2009. Although previous studies have reported a close relationship between social childcare sharing and the fertility rate, this does not seem to be applicable to Korea due to its low degree of social sharing of childcare. Grandparental childcare sharing was also found to be insufficient in influencing additional fertility decisions. On the other hand, gender division of childcare was significantly related to family planning; the possibility of having additional children increased proportionally with the hours that both the father and mother put into childcare. In addition, variables reflecting the unique features of Korean society were significantly related to women’s additional childbirth plans; this indicates that the problem of low fertility in Korea cannot be resolved by solely targeting either social support or gender division of childcare alone.
One of the crucial incidents in Balhae history was Balhae’s attack on Tang Dengzhou in 732. This triggered the unified armed forces of Silla-Tang to engage in an attack on Balhae, similar to the Silla-Tang allied forces’ attack on Goguryeo in 668. How- ever, while Goguryeo had been no match for this powerful alliance, Balhae emerged victorious. In order to locate the factors that sustained Balhae’s durability and prosperity, this article explores the diplomatic relations between Silla, Balhae, and Tang, specifically by analyzing the sovereignty of Liaodong and the condition of the northwestern areas of the Korean peninsula where the three states bordered one another. Andong Protectorate, which originally ruled this area, was demoted to Andong Area Command in 698, making the northwestern Korean peninsula a buffer zone between Silla and Tang. Andong Protectorate was later restored in 705 only to be abolished again in 758, rendering Liaodong a buffer zone between Balhae and Tang. As a result, tension-inducing incidents with neighboring states, such as Balhae’s attack on Dengzhou, were not repeated, and a long period of peace between the three states of East Asia ensued.
This article aims to identify how Japanese colonial land legislation was establishedthrough the use or exclusion of the Korean government’s autonomous land reforms. In order to set up the legislation of modern land ownership in Korea, it was necessarythat the government grapple with several problems: confirming the concept ofmodern land ownership, resolving the multilayered land ownership system, andidentifying the principal subject of ownership to guarantee safe land transactions. First, the Korean government accepted the concept of modern land ownership in theJapanese Civil Code. Secondly, while attempts by the Korean government to resolvemultilayered land ownership were unsuccessful, the Japanese Residency-General ofKorea forcefully took away the rights of multilayered landowners without compensation. Thirdly, although the Korean government created a land register and issuedland ownership deeds, the subject of ownership remained unclear and thus the realestate registration system of Japan was introduced. Existing traditions and customsin Korea were combined with new legislation from Japan in order to create colonialland legislation.