Queen Munjeong (1501-1565) was a substantial power holder who administerednational affairs from “behind the bamboo curtain” during the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between her view onBuddhism and statecraft in sixteenth-century Confucian Joseon. To that end, thisstudy examines Queen Munjeong's Buddhist activities in anti-Buddhist Confuciansociety, her understanding of Buddhism, and her statecraft in relation to her Buddhistpolicy. Queen Munjeong did not reject heterodoxy and respected tradition, whichserved as the logic for her favor of Buddhism. She was a substantial power holder whosurpassed royal authority in power and suppressed remonstrators, and her Buddhistactivities had strong elements of private character while seeking miraculous efficacy,which eventually resulted in criticism from her contemporary and immediate latergenerations.
Joseon wangjo sillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty). http://sillok.history.go.kr/main/main.jsp
Korean Classics Research Institute, ed. 1990-2005. Pyojeom yeongin munjip chonggan (Literary Collections of Korea, Punctuated and Photoprinted). 350 vols. Seoul: Korean Classics Research Institute.
Myeongjong sillok (Annals of King Myeongjong). http://sillok.history.go.kr/inspection/inspection.jsp?mTree=0&id=kva.
Yi, Neung-hwa.  2002. Joseon bulgyo tongsa (A Comprehensive History of Joseon Buddhism). Seoul: Minsogwon.
Best, Jonathan W. 2006. A History of the Early Korean Kingdom of Paekche. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Asia Center.
Bou. 1996. “Bongnyeongsa saseong jungsugi” (A Record of the Restoration of the Images of the Four Saints at Bongnyeongsa Monastery). In Daegak guksa munjip oe (Collected Works of National Master Daegak and Other Writings), translated by Sangil Kim. Seoul: Dongguk Yeokkyeongwon.
Buswell, Robert E., Jr. 1999. “Buddhism Under Confucian Domination: The Synthetic Vision of Seosan Hyujeong.” In Culture and the State in Late Chosŏn Korea, edited by JaHyun Kim Haboush and Martina Deuchler. Harvard-Hallim Series on Korean Studies. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Asia Center.
Buswell, Robert E., Jr. 2011. “Korean Buddhism: A Continental Perspective.” Paper presented at the International Conference to Commemorate the 100th Birth Anniversary of the Great Patriarch Sangwol Wongak, Nonsan, Geumgang University, November 12-13.
Buswell, Robert E., Jr, ed. 1990. Chinese Buddhist Apocrypha. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Han, Choonsoon. 2000. “Myeongjongdae wangsil-ui bulgyo jeongchaek” (The Buddhist Policy of the Royal House during the Reign of King Myeongjong). Inmunhak yeongu (Journal of the Humanities) 4.
Han, Taesik (Bogwang). 2009. “Heoeungdang Bou seonsa-ui gwon yeom yorok” (Gwon yeom yorok by Great Master Heoeungdang Bou). Hanguk bulgyohak(Journal of Korean Association for Buddhist Studies) 53.
Hwang, Inkyu. 2011. “Joseon jeongi hugung-ui biguni chulga-wa bulgyo sinhaeng” (Royal Concubines’ Ordination and Buddhist Practice in the Early Joseon Period). Bulgyo hakbo (Journal for the Buddhist Studies) 57.
Jang, Heeheung. 2002. “Joseon myeongjongdae oecheok jeongchi-wa hwangwan Bak Han-jong” (Maternal Relatives during King Myeongjong’s Reign and the Eunuch Bak Han-jong). Dongguk sahak (Dongguk History) 37.
Kang, Dukwoo. 1994. “Joseon junggi bulgyogye-ui donghyang: Myeongjong daeui sichaek-eul jungsim-euro” (Trends of the Buddhist Circles in Mid-Joseon Korea: Focusing on the Buddhist Policy during the Reign of King Myeongjong). Guksagwan nonchong (Treaties on Korean History) 56.
Kim, Jongmyung. 2002. “The Tripit.aka Koreana: Its Computerization and Significance for the Cultural Sciences in a Modern Globalized World.” In Korea and Globalization: Politics, Economics and Culture, edited by James Lewis and Amadu Sesay. London: Routledge Curzon.
Kim, Jongmyung. 2006. “Trends in Overseas Research on Korean Buddhism.” Review of Korean Studies 9.1.
Kim, Jongmyung. 2007. “King Sejong’s Buddhist Faith and the Invention of the Korean Alphabet: A Historical Perspective.” Korea Journal 47.3.
Kim, Jongmyung. 2010a. “Royal Buddhist Views and Statecraft in Ancient Korea.” In Mélanges offerts à Marc Orange et Alexandre Guillemoz, edited by Martine Prost. Cahiers d’études Coréennes, no. 8. Paris: Collège de France.
Kim, Jongmyung. 2010b. “Sejo-ui bulgyogwan-gwa chigukchaek” (King Sejo’s Buddhist View and Statecraft). Hanguk bulgyohak (Journal of Korean Association for Buddhist Studies) 58.
Kim, Jongmyung. 2010c. “Sejong-ui bulgyogwan-gwa yugyo jeongchi” (King Sejong’s Buddhist View and Confucian Statecraft). Bulgyohak yeongu (Journal of Buddhist Studies) 25.
Kim, Jongmyung. 2013. “Hyeondae hanguk-ui gatbawi yaksabul sinang” (Gatbawi and the Cult of the Healing Buddha in Contemporary Korean). Paper presented at the International Conference on “The Cult of the Healing Buddha in East Asia,” co-hosted by the Columbia Center for Buddhism and East Asian Religions (C-Bear) and Donghwasa Monastery, Daegu, Korea, May 29-31.
Kim, Joongkwon. 2000. “Myeongjongjo-ui saga dokseo-e gwanhan yeongu” (A Study of Sabbatical Leave during the Reign of King Myeongjong). Seojihak yeongu (Bibliographical Research) 19.
Kim, Junghee. 1999. Joseon jeongi bulhwa-ui jeontongseong-gwa jajuseong (Traditionalism and Autonomy of the Buddhist Paintings in the Early Joseon). Seoul: Hangil Art.
Kim, Junghee. 2001. “Munjeong wanghu-ui jungheung bulsa-wa simnyuk segi-ui wangsil bulhwa” (Queen Munjeong’s Revival of Buddhism and the Courtsponsored Buddhist Paintings in the Sixteenth Century). Misul sahak yeongu (Korean Journal of Art History) 231.
Kim, Sanghyun. 2009. “Munjeong wanghu-ui bulgyo jungheung jeongchaek” (Queen Munjeong’s Policy of the Revival of Buddhism). Paper presented at the 50th Buddhist Studies Conference on “The Revival of Buddhism and Its Leaders,” Dongguk University, Seoul, November 28.
Kim, Sangil. 2008. “Heoeungdang Bou-ui yubul illiron-gwa sisegye yeongu” (Heoeungdang Bou’s Harmonization between Confucianism and Buddhism and His World of Poetry). Bulgyo hakbo (Journal for the Buddhist Studies) 48.
Kim, Sangyoung. 1994. “Bou-ui bulgyo buheung-gwa geu jiwon seryeok” (Bou’s Revival of Buddhism and His Aids). Nonmunjip (Collection of Papers) 3.
Kim, Ugi. 1994. “Simnyuk segi cheoksin jeongchigi-ui bulgyo cheongchaek” (The Buddhist Policy in Sixteenth-Century In-law Politics). Guksagwan nonchong (Treaties on Korean History) 56.
Kim, Ugi. 1999. “Munjeong wanghu-ui jeongchi chamyeo-wa jeongguk unyeong” (Queen Munjeong’s Participation in Politics and Governance). Yeoksa gyoyuk nonjip (History Education Review) 23/24.
Kim, Ugi. 2001. Joseon junggi oecheok jeongchi yeongu (A Study of Politics by Maternal Relatives in the Mid-Joseon Period). Seoul: Jipmoondang.
Kim, Yong-Man. 1997. Joseon sidae sanobi yeongu (A Study of Private Slaves during the Joseon Dynasty). Seoul: Jipmoondang.
Kim, Yongtae. 1993. “Bou sungyo-ui yeoksaseong-gwa geu uiui” (The Historical Significance of the Martyrdom of Bou). Bulgyo hakbo (Journal for the Buddhist Studies) 30.
Kwon, Yeonwoong. 1993. “Joseon sidae-ui bulgyo jeongchaek” (Buddhist Policy during the Joseon Dynasty). Jindan hakbo (Journal of the Jindan Historical Society) 75.
Lee, Kyung-ha. 2004. “Sohye wanghu-ui bulgyo ongho bareon-gwa jendeo gwollyeok gwangye” (Queen Sohye’s Utterances Favoring Buddhism and Gender Power). Hanguk yeoseonghak (Gender Studies of Korea) 20.1.
Lim, Hye Ryun. 2003. “Joseon sidae suryeom cheongjeong-ui jeongbi gwajeong” (Formation of Regency during the Joseon Dynasty). Joseon sidae sahakbo(Journal of the Joseon Dynasty History) 27.
McBride, Richard D., II. 2006. “The Study of Korean Buddhism in North America:Retrospective and Recent Trends.” Review of Korean Studies 9.1.
McBride, Richard D., II. 2011. “The Inscriptions on the Standing Maitreya and Amitabha Images of Kamsan Monastery and Devotional Buddhism of the Mid-Silla Period.” Gojeonhak yeongu (Korean Journal of Classical Studies) 1.
Mohan, Pankaj N. 2006. “Beyond the ‘Nation-Protecting’ Paradigm: Recent Trends in the Historical Studies of Korean Buddhism.” Review of Korean Studies 9.1.
Pak, Hyeryeon. 2003. “Joseon sidae suryeom cheongjeong-ui jeongbi gwajeong” (Formation of Regency during the Joseon Dynasty). Joseon sidae sahakbo (Journal of the Joseon Dynasty History) 27.
Park, Dowha. 2002. “Sibo segi hubangi wangsil barwon panhwa” (Woodcuts Sponsored by the Royal House in the Late Fifteenth Century). Gangjwa misulsa (Lectures on Art History) 19.
Park, Youngki. 1997. “Joseon Myeongjong jo doseung seunggwaje-e daehan gochal” (A Study of the Monk Registration System and Monastic Examination). In Mirae bulgyo-ui hyangbang (Direction of Buddhism in the Future), edited by Eunbeop Haginhoe. Hapcheon: Janggyeonggak.
Sørensen, Henrik H. 2007. “Trends in the Study of Korean Buddhism in Europe 1968-2006.” Review of Korean Studies 9.1.
Yi, Jaeheui. 1993. “Joseon Myeongjong dae cheoksin jeongchi-ui jeongchi-wa geu seonggyeok” (Politics by Relative Subjects during the Reign of King Myeongjong and Its Characteristics). Hanguksa ron (Journal for the Studies of Korean History) 29.
Yi, Jongik. 1990. “Bou Daesa-ui jungheung bulsa” (The Revival Buddhist Activities of Great Master Bou). Bulgyo hakbo (Journal for the Buddhist Studies) 27.