One of the key characteristics of Buddhism from the late nineteenth century through the first half of the twentieth century was the rise of lay leadership. East Asian Buddhism was no exception, but the ways, degree, and timing in which this modern phenomenon manifested itself varied, especially in the case of Korean Buddhism, which saw a delayed arrival of lay leadership. This article addresses the question of why lay Buddhism struggled to emerge as a strong force in colonial Korea. A key factor that has been underestimated in scholarship is that Korean monks were socially stigmatized during the Joseon period (1392–1910). The rhetoric of stigmatism was so ubi-quitous in journals and newspapers in colonial Korea that it begs a closer analysis of the correlation between the societal perception of monks and its influence on the development of lay Buddhism. This article first examines three interrelated aspects of Korean monastics: (1) the stigmatization imposed on monastics during the Neo-Confucian Joseon dynasty, (2) the persistence of these stigmas in the minds of Koreans, and (3) their internalization among Korean monastics themselves. The article then draws out the impact of these three aspects on the late and limited emergence of lay leadership.
Bulgyo (Buddhism), 1924–1933
Bulgyo Sibo (Buddhist Times), 1935–1945
Chosen bukkyo (Joseon Buddhism), 1924–1945
Chugai Nippo, 1897–present
Dong-A Ilbo, 1920–present
Dongnip Sinmun, 1896–1899
Dongnip Sinmun (Shanghai edition), 1919–1924
Hanseikai zasshi (Magazine of the Self-Examination Society), 1887–1892
Joseon bulgyo chongbo (Joseon Buddhist Reports), 1917–1920
Joseon bulygo jinheunghoe wolbo (Monthly of the Joseon Association for the Promotion of Buddhism), 1915
Maeil Sinbo, 1910–1938
Meikyo shinshi (New Magazine of Bright Teachings), 1874–1901
Shin bukkyo (New Buddhism), 1901–1915
Sin bulgyo (New Buddhism), 1937–1944
Cho, Eun-su. 2003. “Re-Thinking Late 19th Century Chosŏn Buddhist Society.” Acta Koreana 6.2: 87-109.
Cho, Eun-su. 2011. Korean Buddhist Nuns and Laywomen: Hidden Histories, Enduring Vitality. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Cook, Joanna. 2010. Meditation in Modern Buddhism: Renunciation and Change in Thai Monastic Life. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Do, Jinsun. 2002. Baekbeom Kim Gu (Autobiography of Kim Gu). Seoul: Dolbegae.
Gaya, Napja. 1926a. “Bae-eun mangdeok (jae ilsin)” (Being Ungrateful [First Letter]). Bulgyo 23.
Gaya, Napja. 1926b. “Bae-eun mangdeok (jae isin)” (Being Ungrateful [Second Letter]). Bulgyo 26 (August).
Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Gombrich, Richard, and Gananath Obeyesekere. 1988. Buddhism Transformed:Religious Change in Sri Lanka. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Grayson, James Huntley. 2006. “A Quarter-Millennium of Christianity in Korea.” In Christianity in Korea, edited by Robert Buswell, 7-28. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Han, Dong-min. 2007. “Daehan jegukgi bulgyo-ui gukga gwalli-wa sasa gwalliseo” (The State’s Management of Buddhism and the Bureau of Temple Administration during the Period of the Korean Empire). Jungang saron (Journal of Joong-Ang Historical Studies) 25: 33-82.
Han, Sang-gil. 2006. “Gaehwagi sachal-ui jojik-gwa unyong” (Activities and Organizations of the Korean Temples during the Enlightenment Period). In Bulgyo geundaehwa-ui jeongae-wa seonggyeok, by the Research Institute for Buddhist Studies, Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism, 11-46. Seoul: Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.
Han, Yong-un. 1938. “Joseon bulgyo cheongnyeon undong-eul buhwal-hara” (Revive the Joseon Youth Buddhism Movement). Sin bulgyo (New Buddhism)10.
Hur, Namlin. 2010. “Han Yong’un (1879–1944) and Buddhist Reform in Colonial Korea.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37.1: 75-97.
Ikeda, Eishun. 1998. “Teaching Assemblies and Lay Societies in the Formation of Modern Sectarian Buddhism.” Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 25.1-2:11-44.
Jaffe, Richard. 2001. Neither Monk Nor Layman: Clerical Marriage in Modern Jap-anese Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Jiil. 1925. “Daehoe-eseo eodeun gamsang” (Impressions Gained from the Conference). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 18 (December).
Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. 2008. Bongamsa gyeolsa-wa hyeondae hanguk bulgyo (The Assembly of the Bongamsa Temple and Modern Korean Buddhism). Seoul: Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.
Jong, Byongjo. 1997. “The Buddhist Lay Movement in Korean Society.” In Religion and Society in Contemporary Korea, co-edited by Lewis R. Lancaster and Richard K. Payne, 87-100. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies.
Kim, Byeogong. 1927a. “Joseon bulgyo giuron” (On Anxiety about Korean Buddhism). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 32.
Kim, Byeogong. 1927b. “Joseon bulgyo giuron [sok]” (On Anxiety about Korean Buddhism [Sequel]). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 33.
Kim, Gwang-sik. 1998. Hanguk geundae bulgyo-ui hyeonsil insik (Reality Consciousness of Modern Korean Buddhism). Seoul: Minjoksa.
Kim, Gwang-sik. 2007. “Han Yong-un bulgyo geundaehwa gihoek-gwa seungnyeo gyeolhon jayuron” (Han Yong-un’s Plan for Buddhist Modernization and Clerical Marriage). Daegak sasang (Maha Bodhi Thought) 11: 400-438.
Kim, Jongmyeong. 2009. “Yi Nŭnghwa, Buddhism, and the Modernization of Korea: A Critical Review.” In Makers of Modern Korean Buddhism, edited by Jin Y. Park, 91-108. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Kim, Myeongsik. 1920. “Sogin-ui bulgyogwan” (A Lay Person’s View of Buddhism). Joseon bulgyo chongbo (Joseon Buddhist Reports) 21.
Kim, Sun-seok. 1995. “Joseon bulgyodan yeongu” (A Study of the Association of Korean Buddhism). Hanguk dongnip undongsa yeongu (Journal of Korean Independence Movement Studies) 9: 125-148.
Kim, Yeong-tae. 1986. Hanguk bulgyosa gaeseol (An Outline History of Buddhism in Korea). Seoul: Gyeongseowon.
Kwon, Sang-no. 1920. “Joseon seungnyeo-wa sahoejeok jiwi” (Korean Monks and Their Social Status). Joseon bulgyo chongbo (Joseon Buddhist Reports) 20.
Kwon, Sang-no. 1924. “Samso seonsaeng jok-hayeo!” (Dear Mr. Samso!). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 1.
Kwon, Sang-no. 1926. “Cheongnyeon-ho! Cheongnyeon-ho!” (Young Man! Young Man!). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 28 (October).
Kwon, Sang-no. 1944. “Yeonseong-e gwanhayeo” (On Training a Person). Sin bulgyo (New Buddhism) 66.
Lee, Younghee. 2012. “A Buddhist Reconquest of Korea? Namho Yŏnggi and ‘Changan kŏlsikka.’” Journal of Korean Religions 3.1: 85-103.
Mongjeongsaeng. 1932. “Wigi-e jingmyeon-han joseon bulgyo-ui wonin gochal (sok)” (A Study of the Cause of the Danger Confronting Korean Buddhism [Sequel]). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 101/102.
Nakamura, Kentaro. 1924. “Soryo no jakuten to mujikaku” (Monks’ Blindness to Their Weaknesses). Chosen bukkyo (Joseon Buddhism) 1 (June).
Namhaesaeng. 1926. “Gaya Napja-ui ‘Baeun mangdeok’-eul ilkko” (After Reading Gaya Napja’s “Being Ungrateful”). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 28 (October).
O, Gyeong-hu. 2007. “Hyeonjongdae-ui bulgyo jeongchaek-gwa bulgyogye-ui undong” (The Policy of the King Hyeonjong Era on Buddhism and the Movements of Buddhist Groups). Hanguk seonhak (Journal of Korean Seon Studies) 17: 321-354.
O’Brien, Jodi A. 1997. The Production of Reality: Essays and Readings on Social Interaction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
Okumura, Enshin.  1975. “Chosenkoku fukyo nisshi 朝鮮國布敎日誌” (A Diary of Buddhist Propagation in Korea). In Shinshu shiryo shusei 真宗史料集成 (A Collection of Shin Buddhist Documents), edited by Kashiwahara Yusen. Tokyo: Dohosha.
Palais, James. 1996. Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Park, Jin Y., ed. 2009. Makers of Modern Korean Buddhism. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Park, Pori. 2009. Trial and Error in Modernist Reforms: Korean Buddhism Under Colonial Rule. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies.
Pittman, Don. 2001. Toward a Modern Chinese Buddhism: Taixu’s Reform. Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press.
Robinson, Richard. 1996. “The Ethic of the Householder Bodhisattva.” Bharati 9:25-56.
Samuels, Jeffrey. 1999. “Views of Householders and Lay Disciples in the Sutta Pitaka:A Reconsideration of the Lay/Monastic Opposition.” Religion 29: 231-241.
Schopen, Gregory. 2004. Buddhist Monks and Business Matters: Still More Papers on Monastic Buddhism in India. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Takahashi, Toru. 1933. “Yama ni kaere” (Return to the Mountains!). Chosen bukkyo (Joseon Buddhism) 88.
Tarocco, Francesca. 2007. The Cultural Practices of Modern Chinese Buddhism:Attuning the Dharma. London and New York: Routledge.
Tikhonov, Vladimir, and Owen Miller, trans. 2008. Selected Writings of Han Yongun: From Social Darwinism to Socialism with a Buddhist Face. Folkestone:Global Oriental.
Walraven, Boudewijn. 2007. “A Re-Examination of the Social Basis of Buddhism in Late Chosŏn Korea.” Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 20.2: 1-20.
Walraven, Boudewijn. 2012. “Editor’s Introduction.” Journal of Korean Religions 3.1: 5-8.
Weber, Max.  1993. The Sociology of Religion. Translated by Ephraim Fischoff. Boston: Beacon Press.
Weber, Max.  2000. The Religion of India. Translated by Hans H. Gerth and Don Martindale. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
Welch, Holmes. 1968. The Buddhist Revival in China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Xiao, Ping. 2003. Jindai zhongguo fo jiao de fuxing 近代中國佛敎的復興 (Renaissance of Modern Chinese Buddhism). Guangzhou: Guangdong Renmin Chubanshe.
Yang, Eun-yong. 1993. “Yi Neung-hwa-ui hanguk bulgyo yeongu” (Yi Neung-hwa’s Studies on Korean Buddhism). Jonggyo yeongu (Religious Studies) 9: 45-65.
Yi, Gwang-nin. 1985. “Gaehwaseung Yi Dong-in” (Enlightenment Monk Yi Dongin). Donga yeongu (East Asian Studies) 16: 473-486.
Yi, Jae-heon. 2007. Yi Neung-hwa-wa geundae bulgyohak (Yi Neung-hwa and Modern Buddhist Studies). Seoul: Jisik Saneopsa.
Yi, Neung-hwa. 1918. Joseon bulgyo tongsa (A Comprehensive History of Korean Buddhism). Seoul: Simmunsa.
Yi, Neung-hwa. 1927. “Joseon bulgyo-ui samsidae” (Three Periods of Korean Buddhism). Bulgyo (Buddhism) 31.