This article is a new historical account of the concept of gyoyang (mind cultivation, literally meaning “teaching and nurtureing”) from two perspectives. The first is that the long tradition of Confucian humanities has intervened in forming the contents and examples of gyoyang. In the modern era, the original concept of gyoyang and its long Asian traditions have become fused with the Western ideas of the humanities. The second is that the everyday entrenchment of the word gyoyang and the spread of gyoyang-ism stemmed from the people’s aspirations for enlightenment and education as well as demands for intellectual equality. The history of the concept of gyoyang is deeply related to that of gyoyang-ism or the cultural history of struggles surrounding symbols of knowledge. Based on such perspectives, this article reviews the uses of the concept of gyoyang in Korea during its colonial period and its evolution in five instances: (1) character building, (2) education, (3) capabilities to learn knowledge and culture, (4) basic and wide-ranging knowledge, and (5) civil maturity and proficiency in the humanities in the Western sense of the word.
Botong hakgyo joseoneo sajeon (Korean Dictionary for Primary School Students).1925. Seoul: Taehaksa.
Hanyu da cidian 漢語大詞典(Comprehensive Dictionary of Chinese).
Joseon wangjo sillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty).
Joseoneo sajeon (Korean Dictionary). 1920. Seoul: Government-General of Korea.
Joseoneo sajeon (Korean Dictionary). 1938. Seoul: Korean Dictionary Publica tion Society.
Joseonmal dae sajeon (Expansive Korean Dictionary). 1992. Pyongyang: Language Institute, Academy of Social Sciences.
Pyojun gugeo daesajeon (Standard Korean Dictionary). 1999. Seoul: Dong-A.
Sae urimal keun sajeon (New Grand Korean Dictionary). 1974. Seoul: Seoul Shinmun.
Yeonse hangugeo sajeon (Yonsei Korean Dictionary).
Chae, Man-sik.  1989. Tangnyu (The Muddy Stream). Seoul: Munhak Sasang.
Cheon, Jung-hwan. 2012. “Gyoyang gaenyeom-ui munhwasa-reul tonghae bon gaenyeomeo-wa biyu hwanyu” (Conceptual Words, Metaphor, and Metonymy as Viewed via the Cultural History of Gyoyang). Paper presented at the symposium, “Concepts and Korean Modernity,” Yonsei University, Seoul, January 13.
Cheon, Jung-hwan, and Lee Yong-nam. 2006. “Geundaejeok daejung munhwa- ui baljeon-gwa chwimi” (The Development of Modern Mass Culture and Tastes). Minjok munhaksa yeongu (Journal of Korean Literature History) 30.
Fisch, Jörg. 2010. Koselleck-ui gaenyeomsa sajeon I: munmyeong-gwa munhwa (Koselleck’s Dictionary of the Conceptual History I: Civilization and Culture). Translated by An Sam-hwan. Seoul: Pureun Yeoksa. Originally published as “Zivilisation, Kultur.” In vol. 7 of Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe, edited by Otto Brunner, Werner Conze, and Reinhart Koselleck (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1992).
Huh, Byungshik. 2006. “Hanguk geundae soseol-gwa gyoyang-ui inyeom”(Korea’s Modern Novels and the Ideology of Gyoyang). PhD diss., DonggukUniversity.
Huh, Byungshik. 2009a. “Gyoyang-ui jeongchihak: sin cheje-wa gyoyangjuui” (Political Science of Gyoyang: New System and Gyoyang-ism). Minjok munhaksa yeongu (Journal of Korean Literature History) 40.
Huh, Byungshik. 2009b. “Singminji jisigin-gwa geurodeseukeu-han gyoyangjuui”(Colonial Intellectuals and Grotesque Gyoyang-ism). Hanguk eomunhakyeongu (Research on Korean Language and Literature) 52.
Hwang, Hoduk, and Lee Sang Hyun. 2012. Hangugeo-ui geundae-wa ijungeo sajeon (Korean Language in Modern Times and Dual Language Dictionaries). Seoul: Bakmunsa.
Ju, Jong-geon. 1923. “Hyeondae gyeongje jojik-ui mosun: eotteon dasogan gyoyang-inneun sireophan sunggnyeon jikgong-gwaui daehwa” (Contradictions of Modern Economic System: A Dialogue with an Unemployed Skilled Female Laborer with a Modicum of Gyoyang). Gaebyeok (Genesis) 39 (November).
Kawai, Eijiro 河合栄治郎 . 2007. Haksaeng-gwa gyoyang (Students and Mind Cultivation). Translated by Yang Il-mo. Seoul: Sohwa. Originally published as『學生と敎養』(Tokyo: Shakai Shiso Kenkyukai Shuppanbu, 1953).
Kiyotada, Tsutsui 筒井淸忠. 1992. “Nihon ni okeru kyoyo shugi to shuyo shugi日本における敎養主義と修養主義” (Kyoyo-ism and Moral Culture in Japan).Shiso 思想(Thoughts) 812.
Moon, Kyoung Yeon. 2008. “Hanguk geundae chogi gongyeon munhwa-ui chwimi damon yeongu” (A Study of Taste Discourse in Korean Performance Culture in the Early Modern Period). PhD diss., Kyung Hee University.
Roh, Moo-hyun. 2009. Seonggong-gwa jwajeol: Roh Moo-hyun daetongnyeong motda sseun hoegorok (Successes and Frustrations: Unfinished Memoir of President Roh Moo-hyun). Seoul: Hakgojae.
Schwanitz, Dietrich. 2007. Gyoyang (Mind Cultivation). Translated by In Seonggi. Seoul: Deulnyeok. Originaly published as Das Building: Alles, was man wissen muß (Munich: Goldmann, 2002).
So, Young-Hyun. 2010. “Gyoyangnon-gwa chulpan munhwa: gyoyang-ui jedohwa- wa chulpan munhwa-ro bon gyoyang bum” (Gyoyang-ism and Performance Culture: Gyoyang Boom Viewed from the Institutionalization of Gyoyang and Publication Culture). Hyeondae munhak-ui yeongu (Modern Literature Study) 42.
Yi, Tae-jun.  1988. Sasang-ui worya (Moon Night of Thoughts). Seoul: Gipeun Saem.
Yeom, Sang-seop.  1987. Sarang-gwa joe (Love and Sin). Seoul: Minumsa.
Yeun, Keumsun. 2007. “Dokseo daejunghwa yeongu: 1960 nyeondae-reul jungsim-euro” (A Study of Reading Popularization Drive: With Emphasis on the 1960s). Hanguk doseogwan jeongbo hakhoeji (Korea Library and Information Science Society Bulletin) 38.2.
Yun, Daeseok. 2007. “Gyeongseong jedae-ui gyoyangjuui-wa ilboneo” (Gyoyang- ism at Keijo University and Japanese Language). Daedong munhwa yeongu (Journal of Eastern Studies) 59.
Yun, Daeseok. 2009. “Gyoyang-ui tansaeng” (The Birth of Gyoyang). Paper presented at the 2009 Symposium of the National Literature History Research Institute and Society, Seoul, June 12.