바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

Presidential Apology and Level of Acceptance: The U.S. Beef Import Negotiation Upheaval in South Korea

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2012, v.52 no.3, pp.119-147
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2012.52.3.119

(KPR & Associates)
  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the apology strategies used by South Korean President Lee Myung-bak during the U.S. beef import negotiation upheaval in South Korea in 2008 and to investigate how these apologies were perceived by the South Korean public. The role of party identification as an audience-related variable in the perception of political apologies in the South Korean context was also examined. A content analysis of President Lee’s speeches and related daily newspaper coverage was conducted to identify the main apology strategies employed by the president and conveyed to the public through the media during the crisis. Experimental work was then carried out to examine the level of acceptance of these strategies, with further research evaluating the effect of party identification on the overall results. According to the results of the experimental work, President Lee’s apology strategies were generally ineffective, with the exception of the clear corrective action strategy. in addition the impact of party identification on the level of acceptance of the major apology strategies was confirmed.

keywords
South Korean political apology apology strategy party identification level of acceptance of apology

Reference

1.

Allen, Myria W., and Rachel H. Caillouet. 1994. “Legitimation Endeavors: Impression Management Strategies Used by an Organization in Crisis.” Communication Monographs 61: 44-62.

2.

Belknap, George, and Angus Campbell. 1951. “Political Party Identification and Attitudes toward Foreign Policy.” Public Opinion Quarterly 15.4: 601-623.

3.

Benoit, William L. 1995. Accounts, Excuses, and Apologies: A Theory of Image Restoration Strategies. Albany: State University of New York Press.

4.

Benoit, William L. 2004. “Image Restoration Discourse and Crisis Communication.” In Responding to Crisis: A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication, edited by Dan P. Millar and Robert L. Heath, 263-280. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

5.

Benoit, William L. 2006. “Image Repair in President Bush’s April 2004 News Conference.” Public Relations Review 32: 137-143.

6.

Benoit, William L., and Jayne R. Henson. 2009. “President Bush’s Image Repair Discourse on Hurricane Katrina.” Public Relations Review 35: 40- 46.

7.

Bligh, Michelle C., Jeffrey C. Kohles, and James R. Meindl. 2004. “Charisma under Crisis: Presidential Leadership, Rhetoric, and Media Responses before and after the September 11th Terrorist Attacks.” Leadership Quarterly 15: 211-239.

8.

Bottom, William P., Kevin Gibson, Steven E. Daniels, and J. Keith Murnighan.2002. “When Talk is Not Cheap.” Organization Science 13.5: 497-513.

9.

Brummett, Barry. 1981. “Burkean Scapegoating, Mortification, and Transcendence in Presidential Campaign Rhetoric.” Central States Speech Journal 32: 254-264.

10.

Campbell, Angus, and Henry Valen. 1961. “Party Identification in Norway and the United States.” Public Opinion Quarterly 25.4: 505-525.

11.

Cho, Jin Man, and Choi Jun-Young. 2006. “17 dae chongseon-e natanan jeongdang tupyo gyeoljeong yoin bunseok” (What Determined the Party Vote in the 17th Congressional Election?). Hanguk jeongchi jeongbo hakhoe (Journal of Political Science and Communication) 9.1: 203-221.

12.

Coombs, W. Timothy. 2004a. “Impact of Past Crises on Current Crisis Communication.” Journal of Business Communication 41.3: 265-289.

13.

Coombs, W. Timothy. 2004b. “West Pharmaceutical’s Explosion.” Public Relations Review 30: 467-473.

14.

Coombs, W. Timothy. 2007. “Protecting Organization Reputations during a Crisis: The Development and Application of Situational Crisis Communication Theory.” Corporate Reputation Review 10.3: 163-176.

15.

Coombs, W. Timothy, and Sherry J. Holladay. 2004. “Reasoned Action in Crisis Communication: An Attribution Theory-Based Approach to Crisis Management.” In Responding to Crisis: A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication, edited by Dan P. Millar and Robert L. Heath, 95-115. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

16.

Dow, Bonnie J. 1989. “The Function of Epideictic and Deliberative Strategies in Presidential Crisis Rhetoric.” Western Journal of Speech Communication 53: 294-310.

17.

Downey, Sharon D. 1993. “The Evolution of the Rhetorical Genre of Apologia.” Western Journal of Communication 57: 42-64.

18.

Edwards, Jason A. 2005. “Community-Focused Apologia in International Affairs: Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama’s Apology.” Howard Journal of Communications 16: 317-336.

19.

Englehardt, Kimberly J., Lynne M. Sallot, and Jeffrey K. Springston. 2004.“Compassion without Blame: Testing the Accident Decision Flow Chartwith the Crash of ValuJet Flight 592.” Journal of Public Relations Research16.2: 127-156.

20.

Gold, Ellen R. 1978. “Political Apologia: The Ritual of Self-Defense.” Communication Monographs 45: 307-316.

21.

Hearit, Keith M. 2006. Crisis Management by Apology: Corporate Response to Allegations of Wrongdoing. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

22.

Heath, Robert L., and Dan P. Millar. 2004. “A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication: Management, Communication Process, and Strategic Responses.” In Responding to Crisis: A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication, edited by Dan P. Millar and Robert L. Heath, 1-19. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

23.

Holsti, Ole R. 1969. Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

24.

Kang, Won Taek. 1998. “Yugwonja-ui inyeomjeok seonghyang-gwa tupyo haengtae” (Voters’ Ideological Dispositions and Voting Behavior). In Hanguk-ui seongeo (Election in South Korea), vol. 2, Je 15 dae daetongnyeong seongeo-reul jungsim-euro (With a Focus on the 15th Presidential Election of the Republic of Korea), edited by Lee Nam-Young, 45-96. Seoul: Purungil.

25.

Kasperson, Roger E., Dominic Golding, and Seth Tuler. 1992. “Social Distrust as a Factor in Siting Hazardous Facilities and Communicating Risks.” Journal of Social Issues 48.4: 161-187.

26.

Karen, Legg L. 2009. “Religious Celebrity: An Analysis of Image Repair Discourse.” Journal of Public Relations Research 21.2: 240-250.

27.

Kim, Hyeong-jun, and Yoo Seongmo. 1996. “Yugwonja-ui jeongdang jiji bunseok: seoul jiyeok-eul jungsim-euro” (Analysis on the Voters’ Party Support: With a Focus on the Seoul Region). Hanguk jeongchi hakhoebo (Korean Political Science Review) 30.4: 299-320.

28.

Kim, Peter H., Donald L. Ferrin, Cecily D. Cooper, and Kurt T. Dirks. 2004.“Removing the Shadow of Suspicion.” Journal of Applied Psychology89.1: 104-118.

29.

Kim, Yungwook. 2004. “Jeongchiin-ui imiji hoebok keomyunikeisyeon bunseok: Kim Young-sam daetongnyeong-ui IMF satae gwallyeon eonbyeon jungsim” (Politicians’ Image Restoration Strategies: Focusing on President Kim Young-sam’s Rhetoric at the Time of the IMF Crisis). Gwang gohak yeongu (Journal of Advertising) 15.5: 397-421.

30.

Kim, Yungwook. 2008. Wiheom, wigi, geurigo keomyunikeisyeon; hyeondae sahoeui wiheom, wigi, galdeung-e daehan haeseok-gwa daeeung (Risk, Crisis and Communication: Interpreting and Coping with Risks, Crises and Conflicts in Modern Society). Seoul: Ewha Womans University Press.

31.

Kim, Yungwook, Park Song Hee, and Oh Hyun Kyung. 2002. “Haengjeong gigwan imiji hoebok jeollyak-ui susahakjeok bunseok” (The Rhetorical Analysis of Image Restoration Strategies in the Context of Governmental Crisis Management). Hongbohak yeongu (Journal of Public Relations Research) 6.2: 5-38.

32.

Kincaid, D. Lawrence. 1987. Communication Theory: Eastern and Western Perspectives. San Diego: Academic Press.

33.

Lee, Gwi Hye. 2007. “Hanguk daetongnyeongdeul-ui wigi susahak-e gwanhan yeongu” (A Study on Political Rhetoric of Koreans Presidents). Hanguk eollon hakbo (Korean Journal of Journalism and Communication Studies) 51.6: 62-90.

34.

Lim, Elvin T. 2002. “Five Trends in Presidential Rhetoric: An Analysis of Rhetoric from George Washington to Bill Clinton.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 32.2: 328-348.

35.

Lyon, Lisa, and Glen T. Cameron. 2004. “A Relational Approach Examining the Interplay of Prior Reputation and Immediate Response to a Crisis.” Journal of Public Relations Research 16.3: 213-241.

36.

Millar, Frank E., and Debra Baker Beck. 2004. “Metaphors of Crisis.” In Responding to Crisis: A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication, edited by Dan P. Millar and Robert L. Heath, 153-166. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

37.

Min, Moon H. 1996. “Hangugin-ui sago bangsik” (South Korean’s Way of Thinking). In Hangugin-ui ilsang munhwa (South Korean’s Daily Life Culture), edited by the Daily Life Culture Research Society Group, 103- 134. Seoul: Hanul.

38.

Owen, Diana. 2000. “Popular Politics and the Clinton-Lewinsky Affair: The Implications for Leadership.” Political Psychology 21.1: 161-177.

39.

Park, Eun-Hae, and Kim Yungwook. 2007. “Eollon peureiming-gwa imiji hoebok jeollyak-i gongjung-ui wigi insik-e michineun yeonghyang” (The Effects of Media Framing and Image Restoration Strategies on the Public’s Crisis Perceptions). Haguk eollon jeongbo hakbo (Korean Journal of Communication and Information) 38: 73-118.

40.

Pillai, Rajnandini, Sunan S. Doe, and Glen Brodowsky. 2004. “Presidential Scandal and Leadership: A Natural Laboratory Test of the Resiliency of President Clinton’s Transformational Leadership during the Impeachment Crisis.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 34.6: 1109-1130.

41.

Scott, Marvin B., and Stanford M. Lyman. 1968. “Accounts.” American Sociological Review 33: 42-62.

42.

Shamir, Boas. 1994. “Ideological Position, Leader’s Charisma, and Voting Preferences: Personal versus Partisan Elections.” Political Behavior 16.2: 265-287.

43.

Sheldon, Catherine A., and Lynne M. Sallot. 2009. “Image Repair in Politics.” Journal of Public Relations Research 21.1: 25-50.

44.

Sigel, Roberta S. 1964. “Effect of Partisanship on the Perception of Political Candidates.” Public Opinion Quarterly 28.3: 483-496.

45.

Sturges, David L. 1994. “Communicating through Crisis: A Strategy for Organizational Survival.” Management Communication Quarterly 7.3: 297- 316.

46.

Treier, Shawn, and D. Sunshine Hillygus. 2009. “The Nature of Political Ideology in the Contemporary Electorate.” Public Opinion Quarterly 73.4: 679-703.

47.

Yum, June Ock. 1988. “The Impact of Confucianism on Interpersonal Relationships and Communication Pattern in East Asia.” Communication Monograph 55.4: 374-388.

Korea Journal