바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

War and Ritual in Ancient Korea: From the Bronze Age to the Three Kingdoms Era

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2011, v.51 no.1, pp.118-142
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2011.51.1.118

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

Since the 1990s, the discovery of Korean Bronze Age village remains has resulted in close attention to the relationship between agrarian settlements and primitive wars. The characteristics of primitive wars during the Bronze Age, which featured stones as the main weapon of choice, differed from those of the wars by ancient states conducted with iron weapons. The features of such primitive wars that used stones as their weapon may be ascertained from the tradition passed down to the modern era known as seokjeon (stone battle). The kings of ancient states can be perceived as having been newly established supreme rulers that emerged when heads of primitive societies. The war, determined by the king of ancient state, was a sort of ideological political ritual, not the simple physical expression of social conflicts. A pertinent example in ancient Korea of war being conducted as a state ritual led by the royal power occurred during the reign of King Jinheung of Silla (540-576). Such wars featured moralistic, ritual, and religious overtones to the nobles as well as the people. More precisely, they were sacred wars meant to protect the state. These wars were implemented as religious rituals designed to protect the royal power and the state.

keywords
war ritual wooden palisade ditch surrounding settlement (hwanho) stone battle (seokjeon) Hwarangdo King Jinheung

Reference

1.

Burke, Peter. 2004. What is Cultural History? Malden, MA: Polity Press.

2.

Brewer, Paul. 1999. Warfare in the Ancient World: History of Warfare. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers.

3.

Carles, William Richard. 1888. Life in Corea. London: Macmillan Co.

4.

Chang, K. C. 1983. Art, Myth, and Ritual: The Path to Political Authority in Ancient China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

5.

Choi, Sung Rak. 1982. “Hanguk maje seokchok-ui gochal” (A Study on Korean Polished Stone Arrowhead). Hanguk gogo hakbo (Journal of Korean Archaeological Studies) 12.

6.

Darnton, Robert. 1984. The Great Cat Massacre: And Other Episodes in French Cultural History. New York: Basic Books.

7.

Ferguson, R. Brian. 1999. “A Paradigm for the Study of War and Society.” In War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: Asia, the Mediter ranean, Europe, and Mesoamerica, edited by Kurt Raaflaub and Nathan Rosenstein, 389-427. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

8.

Garlan, Yvon. 1975. War in the Ancient World: A Social History. Translated by Janet Lloyd. London: Chatto & Windus.

9.

Gilmore, George W. 1892. Korea from its Capital: With a Chapter on Mission. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath-School Work.

10.

Howard, Michael. 1984. “The Influence of Clausewitz.” In On War, translated and edited by Michael Howard and Peter Paret, 27-44. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

11.

Hunt, Lynn, ed. 1989. The New Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

12.

Hwang, Gideok. 1965. “Mudeom-eul tonghayeo bon uri nara cheongdonggi sidae-ui sahoe gwangye” (The Social Relationship in Bronze Age Korea Viewed through Tombs). Gogo minsok (Ancient Folklore) 4.

13.

Hulbert, Homer B. 1906. The Passing of Korea. London: William Heinemann Co.

14.

Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Inner Mongolia Department 中國社會科學院考古硏究所內蒙古工作隊. 1985. 「內蒙古敖漢旗興隆窪遺址發掘簡報」(Report on the Excavation of the Xinglongwa Site Located in Inner Mongolia’s Aohan Banner). 『考古』(Archaeology) 10.

15.

Keegan, John. 1993. A History of Warfare. London: Marsh & Sheil.

16.

Keeley, Lawrence H. 1996. War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. New York: Oxford University Press.

17.

Kim, Chang Seok. 2003. “Seokjeon-ui giwon-gwa geu seonggyeok byeonhwa” (The Origin of Stone Battles and Changes in Its Characteristics). Guksagwan nonchong (Collection of Korean Historical Treaties) 101.

18.

Lee, Young Moon. 1997. “Jeonnam jibang chulto maje seokgeom-e gwanhan yeongu” (A Study of Polished Stone Daggers in Jeollanam-do Province). Hanguk sanggosa hakbo (Journal of Korean Ancient Historical Society).

19.

Li, Xueqin 李勤, ed. 1997. 中國古代文明與國家形成硏究(Study on the Formation of Civilization and the States in Ancient China). Kunming: Yunnan People’s Publishing.

20.

Matsugi, Takehiko 松木武彦. 1998. 「戰いから戰爭へ」(From Combat to Warfare). In 『古代國家はこうして生まれた』(Ancient States were Born through Resistance). Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co.

21.

Otterbein, Keith F. 1999. “A History of Research on Warfare in Anthropology.” American Anthropologist 101.4.

22.

Park, Daejae. 2003. Uisik-gwa jeonjaeng—godae gukga-reul baraboneun saer oun sigak (Ritual and War—A New Perspective on Ancient States). Seoul: Chaeksesang.

23.

Park, Daejae. 2006. “Jeonjaeng-ui giwon-gwa uisik” (The Origin of War and Ritual). In Jeonjaeng-ui giwon-eseo sangheun-kkaiji (From the Origin of War to Its Traumatic Scars), edited by the National Institute of Korean History. Seoul: Doosan Donga.

24.

Shin, Bok-Ryong. 1982. “Seonang[seonghwang]-ui gunsajeok uimi-e gwanhan yeongu” (A Study on the Military Significance of Seonang). Geonguk daehakgyo haksulji (Journal of Konkuk University) 26.

25.

Shirakawa, Shizuka 白川靜. 1984. 『字統』(The Tradition of Characters). Tokyo: Heibonsha.

26.

Soda, Hiroshi 相田洋. 1997. 「東アジアの石合戰について」(On the Stone-Fighting Battles in East Asia). In 『異人と市: 境界の中國古代史』(Strangers and Markets: Ancient History of China on the Border). Tokyo: Kenbun Shuppan.

27.

Son, Jin-tae. 1981. “Seokgojeon” (Stone Battle). In vol. 2 of Son Jin-tae seonsaeng jeonjip (The Collected Works of Son Jin-tae). Seoul: Taehaksa.

28.

Son, Joonho. 2006. Cheongdonggi sidae maje seokgi yeongu (An Archaeological Study of the Polished Stone Tools in Bronze Age Korea). Seoul: Seogyeong Munhwasa.

29.

Van Dülmen, Richard. 2000. Historische Anthropologie: Entwicklung, Probleme, Aufgaben. Köln: Böhlau.

30.

Yates, D. S. Robin. 1999. “Early China.” In War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: Asia, the Mediterranean, Europe, and Mesoamerica, edited by Kurt Raaflaub and Nathan Rosenstein. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

31.

Yi, Gidong. 1980. Silla golpumje sahoe-wa hwarangdo (The Bone-Rank System of Silla and the Hwarangdo). Seoul: Hanguk Yeonguwon.

Korea Journal