바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

The Creation of Idu

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2010, v.50 no.2, pp.97-123
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2010.50.2.97

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

This paper aims to examine how idu, a writing system that represented the ancient Korean language by borrowing Chinese characters, was created. Through analysis of existing epigraphs and newly found wooden tablets, this paper critically scrutinizes the hypothesis that idu originated in Goguryeo or Baekje and highlights Silla’s role in the culmination of idu’s evolution. Silla’s written materials attest to the tireless efforts made from the mid-sixth century to use Chinese characters to transcribe Korean sounds. While primitive idu stagnated or declined in Goguryeo and Baekje from the late sixth century, Silla developed the idu system which achieved a transition to an agglutinative language through the use of their own punctuation, case marker, sentence-final endings, and prefinal endings. Presumably this formed the basis of both the hyangchal transcription principle in which the stem of a word is read with its meaning and its ending is read phonetically and the gugyeol principle in which morphological affixes are inserted in between Chinese sentences in the interpretation of classical Chinese texts.

keywords
idu punctuation hyangchal gugyeol wooden tablets interpretative reading of Chinese characters

Reference

1.

Changwon National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2004. Hanguk-ui godae mokgan (Ancient Wooden Tablets of Korea). Seoul: Yemaek Publishing.

2.

Chung, Jaeyoung. 2003. “Baekje-ui munja saenghwal” (Writing Culture in the Baekje Kingdom). Gugyeol yeongu (Gugyeol Studies) 11.

3.

____________. 2008. “Wolseong haeja 149 ho mokgan-e natananeun idu-e daehayeo: seolchong dangdae-ui idu jaryo-reul jungsim-euro” (On the Idu Characters in the Wooden Tablet No. 149 Excavated from the Wolseong Moat: Focusing on the Idu Materials from the Period of Seol Chong). Mokgan-gwa munja (Wooden Tablets and Characters) 1.

4.

____________. 2009. “Hanguk godae munja jaryo-e natananeun jonggyeol eomi ‘之’-e daehayeo” (On the Sentence-Final Ending “之” in Ancient Written Scripts of Korea). In Godae munja jaryo-ro bon dongasia-ui munhwa gyoryu-wa sotong (Cultural Exchange and Communications in Northeast Asia via Ancient Character Data). Seoul: Northeast Asian History Foundation.

5.

Chung, Kwang. 2000. Jungwon goguryeobi yeongu (A Study of the Goguryeo Stele in Jungwon). Seoul: Hakyoun Cultural Publishing Co.

6.

____________. 2003. “Hanbando-eseo hanja-ui suyong-gwa chaja pyogi-ui byeoncheon” (The Adoption of Chinese Characters and Changes in Chinese-Borrowing Writing System in Korea). Gugyeol yeongu (Gugyeol Studies) 11.

7.

Ham, Sun-seop. 2007. “Gungnip gyeongju bangmulgwan sojang anapji mokgan-ui saeroun pandok” (A New Interpretation of the Wooden Tablets from the Anapji Pond Kept at Gyeongju National Museum). Silla munmul yeongu (Review of Silla Culture and Institutions) 1.

8.

Hong, Gi-mun. 1957. Idu yeongu (A Study of Idu). Pyeongyang: Gwahagwon Chulpansa.

9.

Hwang, Seon-yeop. 2006. “Godae gugeo-ui cheogyeok josa” (Locative Case Markers in Ancient Korean). Hanmal yeongu (Studies on Korean Language) 18.

10.

Institute of Goguryeo Studies. 1999. Gwanggaeto hotaewangbi yeongu 100 nyeon (100 Years of Study on the King Gwanggaeto’s Stele). Seoul: Hakyoun Cultural Publishing Co.

11.

Ju, Bo-don. 2009. “Jingmyeong, gwandeung, jimyeong, inmyeong-eul tonghae bon 6 segi silla-ui hanmunja jeongchak” (Policies on the Use of Chinese Characters in the Sixth-Century Silla Reflected in the Names of Offices, Office Ranks, Places, and People). In Hanguk godaesa yeongu-ui hyeondangye (Current Status of the Study of Ancient Korean History). Collection of Papers Commemorating the Retirement of Professor Yi Gidong.

12.

Kim, Young-shim. 2005. “Baekje obangje ha-ui suchwi cheje” (Baekje Tax System under the Five Bang Administrative System). Yeoksa hakbo (Journal of the Korean Historical Association) 185.

13.

Kim, Young Wook. 2003. “Baekje idu-e daehayeo” (On Baekje Idu). Gugyeol yeongu (Gugyeol Studies) 19.

14.

Ko, Kwangui. 2004. “Goguryeo gobun byeokhwa-e natanan seosa gwallyeon naeyong geomto” (An Examination of Portrayals of Transcriptions in Goguryeo Tomb Murals). Hanguk godaesa yeongu (Journal of Ancient Korean History) 34.

15.

Kono, Rokuro 河野六郞. 1968. Chosen kanjon no kenkyu 朝鮮漢字音の硏究(A Study of the Korean Sounds of Chinese Characters). Tenri, Nara: Tenri University Press.

16.

Lee, Byung-ho. 2008. “Buyeo neungsanri chulto mokgan-ui seonggyeok” (Characteristics of Wooden Tablets Excavated from Neungsan-ri, Buyeo). Mokgan-gwa munja (Wooden Tablets and Characters) 1.

17.

Lee, Ki-moon. 1981. “Idu-ui giwon-e daehan il gochal” (An Inquiry into the Origin of Idu). Jindan hakbo (Journal of the Jindan Historical Society) 52.

18.

____________. 1998. Sinjeungpan gugeosa gaeseol (Introduction to the History of Korean Language: Revised and Enlarged Edition). Seoul: Taehaksa.

19.

Lee, Seung Jae. 1997. “Chaja pyogi-ui byeonhwa” (Changes in the Transcription of Borrowed Characters). In Gugeosa yeongu (A Study of the History of Korean Language). Seoul: Taehaksa.

20.

Lee, Sung-Kyu. 2003. “Hanguk godae gukga-ui hyeongseong-gwa hanja suyong” (Formation of the Ancient Countries of Korea and the Acceptance of Chinese Characters). Hanguk godaesa yeongu (Journal of Korean Ancient History) 32.

21.

Lee, Woo Tae. 2005. “Geumseongmun-eul tonghayeo bon hanja-ui doip-gwa sayong” (A Study of the Introduction and Use of Chinese Characters Seen through Epigraphs). Hanguk godaesa yeongu (Journal of Korean Ancient History) 38.

22.

Lee, Yong. 2008. “Godae mit jungse idu yeongu-ui hoego-wa jeonmang” (Retrospectives and Prospectives on the Study of Ancient and Medieval Idu). Gugyeol yeongu (Gugyeol Studies) 21.

23.

Nam, Pung-Hyun. 2000. Idu yeongu (A Study of Idu). Seoul: Taehaksa.

24.

____________. 2006. “Sanggo sidae-e isseoseo chaja pyogibeop-ui baldal” (Development of the Chinese-Borrowing Writing System in Ancient Times). Gugyeol yeongu (Gugyeol Studies) 16.

25.

Park, Seong-jong. 2007. “Iduja ‘內’-ui dokbeop” (How to Read Idu Character “內”). Gugyeol yeongu (Gugyeol Studies) 19.

26.

Research Institute for Korean Ancient History. 1992. Yeokju hanguk godaesa geumseongmun (Translation and Annotation of Ancient Epigraphs in Korea). Seoul: Development Institute of Gaya Historical Sites.

27.

Yeo, Hokyu. 2009. “Goguryeo-ui hanja munhwa suyong-gwa byeonyong” (Goguryeo’s Acceptance and Transformation of the Culture of Chinese Characters). In Godae munja jaryo-ro bon dongasia-ui munhwa gyoryuwa sotong (Cultural Exchange and Communications in Northeast Asia via Ancient Character Data). Seoul: Northeast Asian History Foundation.

28.

Yi, Heung-jik. 1954. “Yeonsujaemyeong silla eunhap u-e daehan il gochal” (A Review of the Inscription on the Silver Bowl of Silla). In Oesol Choe Hyeon-bae seonsaeng hwangap ginyeom nonmunjip (Collection of Papers Commemorating the 60th Birthday of Dr. Choe Hyeon-bae). Seoul: Jungumsa.

29.

Yoon, Seon-tae. 2005. “Wolseong haeja chulto silla munseo mokgan” (Wooden Tablets of Silla Excavated from the Wolseong Moat). Yeoksa-wa hyeonsil (Quarterly Review of Korean History) 56.

30.

____________. 2007a. “Mokgan yeongu-ui hyeonhwang-gwa jeonmang” (Current Status and Prospect of the Study of Wooden Tablets). In Hanguk godaesa yeongu-ui saedonghyang (New Trends of Ancient Korean History Research), edited by the Society for Korean Ancient History. Seoul: Seogyeong Munhwasa.

31.

____________. 2007b. “Baekje-ui munseo haengjeong-gwa mokgan” (Document Administration and Wooden Tablets in Baekje). Hanguk godaesa yeongu (Journal of Korean Ancient History) 48.

Korea Journal