바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

Conservative and Progressive Papers’ News Presentation of the U.S. Beef Imports Issue: Analysis of Sources in Korean Newspaper Articles

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2009, v.49 no.4, pp.29-56
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2009.49.4.29


  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

This study explores the source usage of three conservative and two progressive newspapers in Korea over the issue of beef imports from the United States. The purpose of the study is to understand the tendency of newspapers on both sides, which induced much turmoil, including huge demonstrations against the government in the middle of 2008. The results of a quantitative content analysis show that progressive newspapers employed more sources and presented the issue more negatively than conservative newspapers. In particular, progressive papers used more negative Information, especially from experts, NGOs, and citizens, while the conservative papers used more positive information. In terms of information credibility and valence, the progressive papers effectively used NGO sources, which are situated in the middle of source credibility order, to present a negative tone. The order of credibility is as follows: experts (most credible), followed by judiciary, administration, parliament, NGOs, commercial businesses, and citizens (least credible).

keywords
source credibility information valence U.S. beef imports Korean conservative and progressive newspaperse

Reference

1.

Abel, John D., and Michael O. Wirth. 1977. “Newspaper vs. TV Credibility for Local News.” Journalism Quarterly 54 (summer): 371-375.

2.

Ader, Christine R. 1995. “A Longitudinal Study of Agenda Setting for the Issue of Environmental Pollution.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72 (summer): 300-312.

3.

Berkowitz, Daniel A. 1987. “TV News Sources and News Channels: A Study in Agenda-Building.” Journalism Quarterly 64 (summer/autumn): 508- 513.

4.

Berlo, David K., James B. Lernert, and Robert J. Mertz. 1980. “Dimensions for Evaluating the Acceptability of Message Sources.” Public Opinion Quarterly 33: 563-576.

5.

Blood, Deborah J., and Peter C. B. Phillips. 1997. “Economic Headline News on the Agenda: New Approaches to Understanding Causes and Effects.” In Communication and Democracy, edited by Maxwell McCombs, Donald Shaw, and David Weaver, 97-114. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

6.

Brooks, Brian, George Kennedy, Daryl Moen, and Don Ranly. 2002. News Reporting and Writing. 7th ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press.

7.

Brooks, Brian. 2004. Telling the Story: The Convergence of Print, Broadcast and Online Media. 2nd ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press.

8.

Brown, Jane D., Carl R. Bybee, Stanley T. Wearden, and Dulde M. Straughan. 1987. “Invisible Power: Newspaper News Sources and the Limits of Diversity.” Journalism Quarterly 64 (spring): 45-54.

9.

Colombetti, Giovanna. 2005. “Appraising Valence.” Journal of Consciousness Studies 12.8-10: 103-126.

10.

Detjen, Jim, and Fred Fico, Xigen Li, and Yeonshim Kim. 2000. “Changing Work Environment of Environmental Reporters.” Newspaper Research Journal 21.1: 2-12.

11.

Entman, Roberts. 1993. “Framing Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm.” Journal of Communication 43.4: 51-58.

12.

Fan, David P. 1988. Predictions of Public Opinion from the Mass Media. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

13.

Fiske, Susan T., and Shelly E. Taylor. 1992. Social Cognition. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

14.

Gans, Herbert J. 1979. Deciding What’s News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Times. New York: Vintage Books.

15.

Gantz, Walter. 1981. “The Influence of Researcher Methods on Television and Newspaper News Credibility Evaluations.” Journal of Broadcasting 25 (spring): 155-169.

16.

Gaziano, Cecile, and Kristin McGrath. 1986. “Measuring the Concept of Credibility.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 63.3: 451-462.

17.

Ghanem, Salma. 1997. “Filling the Tapestry: The Second Level of Agenda-Setting.” In Communication and Democracy, edited by Maxwell McCombs, Donald Shaw, and David Weaver, 3-14. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

18.

Greenberg, Bradley S. 1966. “Media Use and Believability: Some Multiple Correlates.” Journalism Quarterly 43 (winter): 665-670.

19.

Gunther, Albert C. 1992. “Biased Press or Biased Public? Attitudes Toward Media Coverage of Social Groups.” Public Opinions Quarterly 56.2: 147- 167.

20.

Hansen, Kathleen A. 1991. “Source Diversity and Newspaper Enterprise Journalism.” Journalism Quarterly 68.3 (fall): 474-482.

21.

Hayes, Arthur, Jane Singer, and Jerry Ceppos. 2007. “Shifting Roles, Enduring Values: The Credible Journalist in a Digital Age.” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22.4: 262-279.

22.

Hilmert, Clayton J., James A. Kulik, and Nicholas S. Christenfeld. 2006. “Positive and Negative Opinion Modeling: The Influence of Another’s Similarity and Dissimilarity.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90.3: 440-452.

23.

Hovland, Carl I., Irving L. Janis, and Harold H. Kelly. 1953. Communication and Persuasion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

24.

Hovland, Carl I., and Walter Weiss. 1951. “The Influence of Source Credibility on Communication Effectiveness.” Public Opinion Quarterly 15.4: 635-650.

25.

Hwang, Chi-sung. 2008. “Galdeung isyu bodo-ui saeroun jeopgeun” (New Approaches to Conflicting Issue Reporting). Seoul: Korean Press Foundation.

26.

Johnson, Thomas J., and Barbra K. Kaye. 1998. “Cruising Is Believing? Comparing Internet and Traditional Sources on Media Credibility Measures.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 75.2: 325-340.

27.

Joo, Yong-jung, and Woo-sang Chung. 2008. “Miseo gwangubyeong balsaeng- hamyeon suip jungdan” (Will Suspend the Import if Mad Cow Disease Attacks in the United States). Chosun Ilbo, May 8.

28.

Kim, Sei-Hill, Dietram A. Scheufele, and James Shanahan. 2002. “Think about It This Way: Attribute Agenda-Setting Function of the Press and the Public’s Evaluation of a Local Issue.” Journalism and Mass Commu-nication Quarterly 79.1: 7-25.

29.

Kim, Sung-hwan, and Hyun-chul Park. 2008. “Gukje aemneseuti, ‘hanguk gyeongchal gwadohan muryuk sayong’” (Amnesty International, “Korean Riot Police Abuses Power”). Hankyoreh, October 7.

30.

Kiousis, Spiro, Philemon Bantimaroudis, and Hyun Ban. 1999. “Candidate Image Attributes: Experiment on the Substantive Dimension of Second Level Agenda Setting.” Communication Research 26 (August): 414-428.

31.

Klaidman, Stephen, and Tom L. Beauchamp. 1987. The Virtuous Journalists. New York: Oxford University Press.

32.

Kovach, Bill, and Tom Rosenstiel. 2001. The Elements of Journalism: What News People Should Know and the Public Should Expect. New York: Crown.

33.

Lee, Gunho. 2005. “Agenda Setting Effects in the Digital Age: Uses and Effects of Online Media.” PhD diss., University of Texas.

34.

Lee, Gunho. 2006. “Hanguk inteonet maechaedeul-ui sangho uije seoljeong hyogwa” (Intermedia Agenda Setting Effects among Korean Online Media). Hanguk eollon hakbo (Korean Journal of Journalism and Communication Studies) 50.4: 200-227.

35.

Lee, Gunho, and Heungseok Koh. 2009. “Chuijaewon sayong-eul tonghae salpyeobon hanguk sinmun-ui bodosigak gochal” (Korean Newspapers’ Political Orientations Featuring in U.S. Beef Imports Articles: Analysis of Source Information Valence in Five Newspapers). Hanguk eollon hakbo (Korean Journal of Journalism and Mass Communication Studies) 53.3: 348-370.

36.

Lee, Gunho, and Wankyu Jung. 2008. “Hanguk-gwa miguk sinmun-ui 1 myeon gisa bigyo” (Comparison of Korean and American Newspapers’ Front Pages). Hanguk eollon hakbo (Korean Journal of Journalism and Communication Studies) 52.4: 25-49.

37.

Lacy, Stephen, and David C. Coulson. 2000. “Comparative Case Study: Newspaper Source Use on the Environmental Beat.” Newspaper Research Journal 21.1: 13-25.

38.

Lippmann, Walter. 1922. Public Opinion. New York: Macmillan.

39.

McCombs, Maxwell E. 2005. Setting the Agenda: The Mass Media and Public Opinion. Cambridge: Polity Press.

40.

McCombs, Maxwell E., Esteban Lopez-Escobar, and Juan Pablo Llmas. 2005. “Setting the Agenda of Attributes in the 1996 Spanish General Election.” Journal of Communication 50.2: 77-92.

41.

McComas, Katherine A., and Craig W. Trumbo. 2001. “Source Credibility in Environmental Health-Risk Controversies: Application of Meyer’s Credi-bility Index.” Risk Analysis 21.3: 467-80.

42.

McManus, John H. 1992. “What Kind of Commodity Is News?” Communication Research 19.6: 787-805.

43.

McNair, Brian. 1998. The Sociology of Journalism. London: Arnold.

44.

Meyer, Philip. 1988. “Defining and Measuring Credibility of Newspapers: Developing an Index.” Journalism Quarterly 65.3 (fall): 567-574.

45.

Perloff, Richard M. 1998. Political Communication: Politics, Press, and Public in America. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

46.

Price, Vincent, and David Tewksbury. 1997. “News Values and Public Opinion: A Theoretical Account of Media Priming and Framing.” In Vol. 13 of Progress in Communication Sciences: Advances in Persuasion, edited by George A. Barnett and Franklin J. Boster, 173-212. Greenwich, CT: Ablex.

47.

Priest, Susanna H. 1995. “Information Equity, Public Understanding of Science and the Biotechnology Debate.” Journal of Communication 45.1: 39-54.

48.

Rich, Carole. 2002. Writing and Reporting News. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

49.

Robinson, Michael J., and Andrew Kohut. 1988. “Believability and the Press.” Public Opinion Quarterly 52.2: 174-189.

50.

Shah, Dhavan V., Mark D. Watts, David Domke, and David P. Fan. 2008. “News Framing and Cueing of Issue Regimes: Explaining Clinton’s Public Approval in Spite of Scandal.” Public Opinion Quarterly 66.3: 339- 370.

51.

Schudson, Michael. 1978. Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. New York: Basic Books.

52.

Schudson, Michael. 1995. The Power of News. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

53.

Shoemaker, Pamela J., and Stephen D. Reese. 1996. Mediating the Message: Theories of Influences on Mass Media Contents. White Plains: Longman.

54.

Sigal, Leon V. 1986. “Sources Make the News.” In Reading the News, edited by Robert Karl Manoff and Michael Schudson, 9-37. New York: Pantheon Books.

55.

Suls, Jerry, René Martin, and Ladd Wheeler. 2000. “Three Kinds of Opinion Comparison: The Triadic Model.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 4.3: 219-237.

56.

Tuchman, Gaye. 1978. Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: Free Press.

57.

Wathen, C. Nadine, and Jacquelyn Burkell. 2002. “Believe It or Not: Factors Conservative and Progressive Papers’ News Presentation of the U.S. Beef Imports Issue 55 Influencing Credibility on the Web.” Journal of American Society for Information Science and Technology 53.2: 134-144.

58.

Wilson, Elizabeth J., and Daniel L. Sherrell. 1993. “Source Effects in Communication and Persuasion Research: A Meta-Analysis of Effect Size.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 21.2: 101-112.

59.

Yi, Jin-Young. 2008. “Sijang gujo byeonhwa-wa bodo-ui dayangseong” (Change of Market Structure and Variety of News Reporting). PhD diss., Korea University.

60.

Yoon, Youngchul. 2002. “Media Management of International Conflict: A Comparative Analysis of News Coverage of Dokdo Island.” Korea Journal 42.4 (winter): 264-297.

61.

Yoon, Youngmin. 2005. “Examining Journalists’ Perceptions and New Coverage of Stem Cell and Cloning Organizations.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 82.2: 281-300.

62.

Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Influencing Credibility on the Web.” Journal of American Society for Information Science and Technology 53.2: 134-144.

63.

Wilson, Elizabeth J., and Daniel L. Sherrell. 1993. “Source Effects in Communication and Persuasion Research: A Meta-Analysis of Effect Size.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 21.2: 101-112.

64.

Yi, Jin-Young. 2008. “Sijang gujo byeonhwa-wa bodo-ui dayangseong” (Change of Market Structure and Variety of News Reporting). PhD diss., Korea University.

65.

Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Korea Journal