바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

Neoliberal Governmentality at Work: Post-IMF Korean Society and the Construction of Neoliberal Women

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2009, v.49 no.3, pp.15-43
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2009.49.3.15

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

This paper focuses on a chain of closely knit social phenomena in the post-IMF Korean society that has complex and interesting effects on Korean women and their responses, both passive and active. The terrain for these phenomena is permeated by neoliberal governmentality. First, the paper presents a review of theoretical frameworks based on Foucault’s later works on biopower and governmentality, especially his interpretations and criticisms of American neoliberalism. Foucault’s framework seems to work quite efficiently in treating the phenomena discussed here, but leaves something to be desired. Especially conspicuous gaps can be seen in its gender blindness. This paper argues that these gaps can be more or less remedied by resorting to works by other feminists and Foucauldians. Next, general descriptions of gender issues in the labor market and social welfare system are given to show that the post-IMF Korean society has been transforming to a neoliberal system. To reveal the salient features of this transition, the phenomena of increasingly booming body care and cosmetic surgery, private marriage matching service, and efforts of students both in secondary schools and colleges to raise their human capital for better jobs in future are introduced and interpreted from the aforementioned theoretical viewpoint.

keywords
biopower technologies of governmentality neoliberalism technologies of self welfare state biopolitics women’s new body practices

Reference

1.

Butler, Judith. 1993. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex.” New York: Routledge.

2.

Butler, Judith. 2004. Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge.

3.

Castells, Manuel. 1997. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Vol. 2. The Power of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell.

4.

Cho, Joo-hyun. 2005. “Intersectionality Revealed: Sexual Politics in Post-IMF Korea.” Korea Journal 45.3: 86-116.

5.

Cho, Soon-Kyung. 1999. “Gyeongje wigi-wa yeoseong goyong jeongchi” (Economic Crisis and the Politics of Women’s Employment). Hanguk yeoseonghak (Korean Journal of Women’s Studies) 15.2: 5-33.

6.

Cho, Uhn. 2009. “Jendeo bulpyeongdeung ttoneun jendeo paereodokseu: hanguk jabonjuui-wa moseong-ui jeongchi gyeongjehak” (Gender Inequality or Gender Paradox: Korean Capitalism and Political Eoconomy of Mothering). Paper presented at the first special symposium of Korean Association of Sociology on “Rethinking Korean Capitalism,” March 20.

7.

Chodorow, Nancy. 1978. The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanlysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.

8.

Choi, Kyungsoo. 2004. “Chulsannyul harak chui-e daehan bunseok” (Causes of the Recent Fertility Drop in Korea). Hanguk inguhak (Korean Journal of Population Studies) 27.2: 35-59.

9.

Choi, Ok Sun. 2005. “Yeoseong-ui mom damnon-gwa seonghyeong damnonui sangho tekseuteuseong-e gwanhan yeongu: yeoseong japji-ui gisa-wa seonghyeong uiryo gwango-reul jungsim-euro” (A Study on Intertextuality between Discourses on the Female Body and Plastic Surgery: Focusing on Female Magazine Articles and Medical Advertisements). PhD diss., Sungkyunkwan University.

10.

Chung, Se-jin. 2006. “Yubang gwalli saneop-ui hwakjang-gwa yeoseong-ui mom” (Growing Breast Care Service Industry and Women’s Body). Master’s thesis, Korea University.

11.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. 1983. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

12.

Deleuze, Gilles. 1987. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

13.

Foucault, Michel. 1978. “An Introduction.” In Vol. 1 of The History of Sexuality. New York: Pantheon.

14.

Foucault, Michel. 1979. “Omnes et Singulatim: Towards a Criticism of ‘Political Reason.’” In The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, delivered at Stanford University, October 10 and 16.

15.

Foucault, Michel. 1983. “The Subject and Power.” In Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow, 208-229. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

16.

Foucault, Michel. 1991. “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller, 87-118. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

17.

Foucault, Michel. 1997. “Technologies of the Self.” In Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth, edited by Paul Rabinow, 223-252. New York: The New Press.

18.

Foucault, Michel. 2007. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977-1978, edited by M. Senellart, A. I. Davidson, A. Fontana, and F. Ewald, and translated by G. Burchell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

19.

Foucault, Michel. 2008. The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979, edited by M. Senellart, A. I. Davidson, A. Fontana, and F. Ewald, and translated by G. Burchell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

20.

Gordon, Collin. 1991. “Governmental Rationality: An Introduction.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller, 1-52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

21.

Hahm, Chaibong. 1998. Talgeundae-wa yugyo (Postmodernity and Confucianism). Paju: Nanam.

22.

Hamann, Trent H. 2009. “Neoliberalism, Governmentality, and Ethics.” Foucault Studies 6 (February): 37-59.

23.

Hekman, Susan J. 1996. “Editor’s Introduction.” In Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault, edited by Susan J. Hekman, 1-14. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

24.

Joo, Eunwoo. 2009. “Hyangyu-ui sahoe-wa geu buran: jabonjuui-wa hanguk sahoe-ui munhwa byeondong” (Jouissance and Its Anxiety: Capitalism and Cultural Transformation of Korean Society). Paper presented at the first special symposium of Korean Association of Sociology on “Rethinking Korean Capitalism,” March 20.

25.

Kim, Eun-Shil. 2006. “Jiguhwa sidae hanguk sahoe seongmunhwa-wa seong yeongu bangbeop” (Research Methods on Sexuality and Sexual Culture of Korean Society in the Era of Globalization). In vol. 2 of Seksyueolliti gangui, dubeonjjae (Lectures on Sexuality), edited by Byeon Hyejeong, 18-49. Seoul: Dongnyeok.

26.

Korea National Statistical Office (KNSO). 2007. 2007 tonggye-ro boneun yeoseong-ui sam (2007 Women’s Lives Shown by Statistics). Daejeon: KNSO.

27.

Lee, Kyeung-Yeun. 2006. “Gwihan mom uisik-gwa oemo gwalli-e gwanhan sanggwan yeongu: 26-35 sedae yeoseong sobija-reul jungsim-euro” (A Study on the Relationship between Valuable Body Consciousness and Appearance Management: Focusing on Women Consumers of 26-35 Age Group). Master’s thesis, Ewha Womans University.

28.

Lemke, Thomas. 2002. “Foucault, Governmentality, and Critique.” Rethinking Marxism 14.3: 49-64.

29.

Lim, In-Sook. 2003. “Yeoseong-ui chwieop-gwa yongmo chabyeol: gieopui yongmo chabyeol-jeok mojip chuse-wa teukseong-ui byeonhwa” (Women’s Employment and Discriminatory Selection Based on Appearance). Hanguk yeoseonghak (Korean Journal of Women’s Studies) 19.1: 113-144.

30.

Lim, In-Sook. 2004. “Oemo chabyeol sahoe-ui seonghyeong gyeongheom-gw uihyang” (The Experience and Intention of Cosmetic Surgery in Discriminatory Society Based on Appearance). Hanguk yeoseonghak (Korean Journal of Women’s Studies) 20.1: 95-122.

31.

Lin, Nan. 2001. Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.

32.

Ma, Kyoung-Hee. 2003. “Hanguk sahoe jeongchaek cheje-ui jendeo gyecheung- hwa nolli-wa yeoseong-ui sahoegwon” (Gender Stratification of Korean Social Policy Regime and Women’s Social Rights). PhD diss., Ewha Womans University.

33.

Ma, Kyoung-Hee. 2005. “Sahoegwon-euroseo dolbom-ui jedohwa-reul wihan daeanjeok paereodaim-ui mosaek” (A Search for an Alternative Paradigm for the Institutionalization of Caring as Social Rights). Yeoseonggwa sahoe (Women and Society) 16: 35-66.

34.

Miller, Laura. 2006. Beauty Up: Exploring Contemporary Japanese Asethetics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

35.

Nam, In-Sook. 2004. Yeoja-ui modeun insaeng-eun isipdae-e gyeoljeong doenda (Everything in a Woman’s Whole Life Is Determined in Her 20s). Seoul: Random House JoongAng.

36.

Ong, Aihwa. 2005. “Graduated Sovereignty in South-East Asia.” In Anthropologies of Modernity: Foucault, Governmentality, and Life Politics, edited by Jonathan X. Inda, 83-104. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

37.

Rich, Adrienne C. 1976. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. New York: Norton.

38.

Ruddick, Sara. 1989. Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. New York: Ballantine Books.

39.

Ryu, Yun-Kyu, Hwang Jung-Im, and Seok Jae-Eun. 2007. “Yeoseong yeongeum sugeupgwon hwakdae-reul wihan gungmin yeongeum jedo gaeseon bangan yeongu” (A Study on the Reform of National Pension System to Improve Pension Rights of Women). Korean Women’s Development Institute Research, Report 2007-3.

40.

Shin, Kwang-Yeong. 2009. “Hyeondae hanguk sahoe-ui bulpyeongdeung gujo byeonhwa: hanguk-ui minjuhwa, segyehwa-wa bulpyeongdeung” (Changes in the Structure of Inequality in Contemporary Korean Society: Democratization, Globalization, and Inequality in Korea). Paper presented at the first special symposium of Korean Association of Sociology on “Rethinking Korean Capitalism,” March 20.

41.

Simons, Jon. 1996. “Foucault’s Mother.” In Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault, edited by Susan J. Hekman, 179-210. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

42.

Trebilcot, Joyce. 1983. “Introduction.” In Mothering: Essays in Feminist Theory, edited by Joyce Trebilcot, 1-6. Totowa: Rowman & Allanheld.

43.

Yoon, Hye-Joon. 1999. “Hangugin-ui jeonhyeong-euroseo sobija: yeoksa somyo” (Consumer as a Typical Korean: A Historical Sketch). Sahoe bipyeong (Social Review) 22: 182-190.

Korea Journal