바로가기메뉴

본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

logo

  • P-ISSN0023-3900
  • E-ISSN2733-9343

The Park Chung-hee Administration amid Inter-Korean Reconciliation in the Détente Period: Changes in the Threat Perception, Regime Characteristics, and the Distribution of Power

Korea Journal, (P)0023-3900; (E)2733-9343
2009, v.49 no.2, pp.37-58
https://doi.org/10.25024/kj.2009.49.2.37

  • Downloaded
  • Viewed

Abstract

This paper aims to explain South Korea’s decision to open dialogue with North Korea in the détente period. President Park Chung-hee, who came to power in a military coup, did not pay much attention to unification matters in his early rule, but starting from the late 1960s, Park gradually began to change his North Korea policy due to a combination of external and internal conditions. I intend to explain the causes of Seoul’s new approach toward Pyongyang through three variables: Threat perception, regime characteristics, and the distribution of power. A combination of these factors forced the Park regime to change its North Korea policy from confrontation to cooperation. However, inter-Korean cooperation proved to be short-lived. The early demise of rapprochement can be explained by the absence of compelling forces that could have driven the deepening of cooperation between the two parties.

keywords
South Korea North Korea détente threat perception distribution of power inter-Korean relations inter-Korean reconciliation

Reference

1.

CIA Records Search Tool, National Archives and Record Administration.

2.

Confidential U.S. State Department Central Foreign Policy Files: Korea, 1967-1969, National Archives and Record Administration.

3.

Confidential U.S. State Department Central Foreign Policy Files: Korea, 1970-1973, National Archives and Record Administration.

4.

MBC Document Collection. 2004.

5.

Oberdorfer Korea Collection. 1998.

6.

Records of the U.S. Department of State Relating to the Internal Affairs of Japan, 1970-1973, National Archives and Record Administration.

7.

Board of National Unification. 1987. Nambukhan gyeongjeryeok bigyo (A Comparison of Economic Power between South and North Korea). Seoul: Board of National Unification.

8.

Cho, Chul Ho. 2000. “Park Chung-hee haek oegyo-wa hanmi gwangye byeonhwa” (Park Chung-hee’s Nuclear Diplomacy and the Transformation of the ROK-U.S. Relationship). PhD diss., Korea University.

9.

Cho, Jin Gu. 2003. “Jonseun jeonggwon hubangi-ui hanmi gwangye: bukhan-ui daenam dobal-e daehan hanmigan-ui insik chai-reul jungsimeuro” (The U.S.-Korean Relations in the Second Half of the Johnson Administration: Dissensions between the Two Allies toward the North Korean Provocations against South Korea). Hanguk-gwa gukje jeongchi (Korea and World Politics) 19.3: 83-110.

10.

Cumings, Bruce. 1997. Korea’s Place in the Sun. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

11.

Hamm, Taik-young. 1998. Gukga anbo-ui jeongchi gyeongjehak: nambukhanui gyeongjeryeok, gukga yeongnyang, gunsaryeok (Politics and Economics of National Security: Economic Power, National Capability, and Military Force of South and North Korea). Seoul: Bobmunsa.

12.

Jo, Dong-Joon. 2007. “The Interaction between Sino-US Rapprochement and Inter-Korean Relationship in 1960-70s.” Journal of Peace Studies 8.2: 447-478.

13.

Kang, In-Duk. 1993. “Kang In-Duk geukdong munje yeongusojang-ui 7.4 gongdong seongmyeong jeonhu jeungeon: Park Chung-hee-neun wae Kim Il Sung-ui jeongsang hoedam jeui-reul geojeol-haenna?” (Kang In- Duk’s Testimony on the July 4 Joint Communiqué: Why Park Chunghee Turned Down Kim Il Sung’s Summit Proposal). Sin donga (January).

14.

Kim, Il Young. 2005. “Park Chung-hee sidae yeongu-ui jaengjeom-gwa gwaje” (Issues and Problems in Studies of the Park Chung-hee Era). In Park Chung-hee sidae yeongu-ui jaengjeom-gwa gwaje (Issues and Problems in Studies of the Park Chung-hee Era), edited by Jeong Seong-hwa. Seoul: Sunin.

15.

Kim, Se-Jin. 1976. Documents on Korean-American Relations: 1943-1976. Seoul: Research Center for Peace and Unification.

16.

Kim, Seong Jin. 2006. Park Chung-hee-reul malhada (Recollecting Park Chung-hee). Seoul: Life and Dream.

17.

Kimiya, Tadashi. 2007. “The Dynamics of Korean Cold War: A Consideration of the Impacts of the U.S.-China Rapprochement Early in the 1970s.” Paper presented at International Workshop on the Cold War and the Korean Peninsula, Beijing University, May 18.

18.

Kimiya, Tadashi. 2008. Park Chung-hee jeongbu-ui seontaek: 1960 nyeondae suchul jihyanghyeong gongeophwa-wa naengjeon cheje (The Choices of Park Chung-hee Administration: Export-oriented Industrialization and Cold War System). Seoul: Humanitas.

19.

Lim, Dong-won. 2008. Piseu meikeo (Peacemaker). Seoul: Joongang Books. Oberdorfer, Don. 2001. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Revised. New York: Basic Books.

20.

Park, Kun Young, Sunwon Park, and Seongji Woo. 2003. “Je 3 gonghwaguk sigi gukje jeongchi-wa nambuk gwangye: 7.4 gongdong seongmyeonggwa miguk-ui yeokhal-eul jungsim-euro” (International Politics and Relations between South and North Korea: Focusing on the July 4 Joint Communiqué and the Role of United States). Gukga jeollyak (National Strategy) 9.4: 61-91.

21.

Radchenko, Sergey. 2005. “The Soviet Union and the North Korean Seizure of the USS Pueblo: Evidence from the Russian Archives.” Cold War International History Project Working Paper No. 47. Schaefer, Bernd. 2004. “North Korean ‘Adventurism’ and China’s Long Shadow, 1966-1972.” Cold War International History Project Working Paper No. 44.

22.

Schaefer, Bernd. 2004. “North Korean ‘Adventurism’ and China’s Long Shadow, 1966-1972.” Cold War International History Project Working Paper No. 44.

23.

Shin, Jong Dae, and Ryoo Kihl Jae. 2006. “ROK-DPRK Relations in the Late 1960s and ROK Diplomacy.” Paper presented at International Workshop on Foreign Relations of the Two Koreas during the Cold War Era, Seoul, May 11.

24.

Shin, Wookhee. 2005. “Gihoe-eseo gyochak sangtaero: detangteu sigi hanmi gwangye-wa hanbando-ui gukje jeongchi” (From an Opportunity to a Deadlock: U.S.-ROK Relations and the Politics of the Korean Peninsula during the Détente Period). Journal of Korean Political and Diplomatic History 26.2: 253-285.

25.

Thompson, William R. 2005. “Explaining Rivalry Termination in Contemporary Eastern Eurasia with Evolutionary Expectancy Theory.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Hawaii.

26.

Woo, Seongji. 2004. “Nambuk hwahae-wa hanmi dongmaeng gwangye-ui ihae, 1969-1973” (Understanding Inter-Korean Reconciliation and the ROK-U.S. Alliance, 1969-1973). Hanguk jeongchi oegyosa nonchong(Journal of Korean Political and Diplomatic History) 26.1: 91-126.

27.

Woo, Seongji. 2008. “Jinhwa gidae iron-gwa detangteu sigi nambuk hwahae-ui ihae” (Understanding of Evolutionary Expectancy Theory and Inter-Korean Reconciliation in the Détente Period). Gukje jeongchi nonchong(Korean Journal of International Relations) 48.2: 107-126.

Korea Journal