This paper attempts to identify different phases of inter-Korean rela-tions and explore the possibility of collective action for a new era. Forthe phrase June 15 Era to gain persuasive power, it should be justi-fied through an examination of history. Also, if it is to be more thanjust a wishful metaphor but a signifier of qualitative change in inter-Korean relations, which used to be portrayed as one of hostile coexis-tence, a structural change must occur that allows the two sides to seeeach other as friends rather than enemies. This paper tentativelyasserts that the June 15 Era, which was catalyzed by the transformednational identity of the North and South, has not yet reached the pointwhere they can regard each other as friends. To prevent a return to hos-tility this paper argues for the building of a peace state that transcendsthe identity of modern states striving to enrich their nations andstrengthen their militaries. Collective action on the part of both Koreasto become a people-enriching and peace-loving state, working toestablish friendship and peace with neighboring countries as well aswith each other, will be the driving force that brings about a funda-mental change in their relations.
Since liberation, the Korean economy has undergone a remarkablestructural transformation, tantamount to a revolution. In the past, dueto national division and the Korean War, Korea could not escape beingan underdeveloped and peripherial country. However, as a latecomer,Korea successfully accomplished a condensed industrialization within ashort span of time, followed by democratization. Now, social and eco-nomic advancement has been set as a policy goal. This dual revolutionbears significance not only for modern Korean history but for worldeconomic history during the post-war era. However, it is misleading to focus only on the positive aspects ofKorean development. A balanced and reflexive viewpoint encompassingboth the bright and dark sides of Korean development is required. Thispaper pays attention to the specific characteristics of Korean develop-ment as a form of cold war, anticommunist capitalism, and thenemphasizes the importance of power relations, interests, and events. Bydoing so, this paper aims to transcend linear evolutionism as well asthe free market-state dichotomy, and offers a coherent analysis of boththe successes and structural contradictions inherent to Korean develop-ment following liberation.
Some Korean power groups suffered from a lack of political legitimacy,so they tried to control the thoughts of citizens. Those in political powerrelied on unconstitutional, antidemocratic violence, and went further tomobilize anticommunist ideology to justify this violence. Especially,since the Korean peninsula was divided into North and South, empha-sis on national security from foreign adversaries was easily coupledwith anticommunist ideology. From liberation until the 1980s, freedomof thought and freedom of expression were not fully guaranteed inKorean society. Abuse of thought-control laws was naturally met with resistance.Citizens resistance against the military dictatorship in June 1987brought about the June 29 Declaration. As democratization progressed,the question of whether to repeal or revise the National Security Lawwas very frequently discussed whenever political power shifted. Howev-er, it should be kept in mind that in order to consolidate democracyand guarantee human rights, a mere revision or repeal of the NationalSecurity Law is insufficient. More importantly, genuine democratiza-tion can be achieved only when the state apparatus that implementedthought control laws, as well as the judiciary branch that applied thelaw to many cases, both confess their antidemocratic acts and guaran-tee that similar cases will not recur in the future.
Korean educational history following liberation has been marked bydependence on the Unites States. Around the time of liberation, pro-Japanese groups were allowed to keep their positions. Also, the Ameri-can school system was introduced and American liberal democracy wasadopted. Later, during the Park Chung-hee administration, human cap-ital theory, which stressed efficiency and competition, was prevalent,and the New Community Movement, the ideological foundation ofwhich was social evolutionism, was conducted. Inquiry learning theo-ry, which originated in the United States, was also blindly introduced. Some pushed for critical education, or concientization, and popu-lar education, followed by group research activities, while resistingAmerican influence. However, due to the downfall of the socialist blocin Eastern Europe, this research trend began to decline. Along withglobalization, Korean education has been shaped by neoliberalist edu-cational policy, which aggressively pursues marketization. Thus, it isnecessary to present visions and alternatives to the current trend ofdependence in the Korean educational system.
On the threshold of the twenty-first century, the Korean Wave can bedefined as Asias wave of nostalgia for an essentialized tradition. Notonly does the Korean Wave reiterate notions of older traditions, but italso constructs a new one in terms of bastardy. Tellingly, many Kore-an television dramas revolve around protagonists of lowly origin caughtin the hierarchy of premodern Korea. In the case of recent art-house andcertain popular films, we are witnessing a transgressiveness thatswings to both ends of the pendulum, from tradition to bastardy. Tra-dition lives in the fear of the symbolic bastards who might usurppower, such as through the contamination of the bloodline throughincest. Yet, as a result of foreign invasions and suffering, the hermitKingdom resembles a circle that tries to keep itself intact, impervious tooutside forces. Translated into the Korean Waves domestic televisiondrama, this drive inward turns into the tease of forbidden love, usuallybetween lovers who mistake each other for half-sibling, such as in Win-ter Sonata. Not until the bastard art house film Old Boy does the tra-ditional tease of incest dare to manifest itself nakedly. Indeed, eventhat which causes pain in the Korean consciousness is not instinctivelydemonized as the Other. Rather, it is internalized, opposite in valenceto the Western tendency of outward projection. This duality of traditionand/of bastardy in the Korean Wave attracts Asian audiences allaround the globe, which find themselves ambivalently wedged betweena lost tradition and a modernity of the Other.
The changes in the Korean broadcast service provision market for thelast few years are summed up as the advancement from a terrestrial to amultichannel TV situation. Terrestrial TV is weakening while cable SOsare experiencing rapid growth. Cable SOs, however, are also facing com-petition. Major over-the-air networks are spinning off PPs centered onentertainment, drama and sports in an effort to diversify their business.The production budgets are relatively focused on commercial content,which in turn are moved to the pay PP channels. In this vein, publicand universal service functions of over-the-air networks are weakening.Pay TV exists as a sub-low market, centered around cable SOs. PPs relyhighly on advertisements while adopting a low-cost programming strate-gy. Satellite TV is suffering from this sub-low market. The rising compe-tition in the broadcast service provision market does not mean thatsociocultural policy matters will fade away. On the contrary, the effortsto link competition in broadcast market to its desirable socioculturaloutcomes should persist.
In Korea, the number of Palaeolithic handaxes that have been recoveredhas increased as the results of many carefully conducted excavations.Of them, the most prolific handaxe sites are highly concentrated in theImjin-Hantan Valley. A comparative study is required in order to verifythe artefacts variation. Because the characteristic features of the han-daxes from Korea are still being questioned, the determination of a use-ful definition for understanding the Palaeolithic culture in Korea ishighly required. For the comparative study, the artefacts from the UpperThames Valley in Britain are applied. The author tried to extract theattributes that are morphologically significant. The attribute for overalloutline of shape is determined with extracted metrical data. To consid-er this matter, so-called tripartite shape diagrams that were generatedby Derek Roe have been used. This series of methods allows the mostobjective verification procedure and enables a reconstruction of pasthuman behaviour in Korea.
In this essay, I investigate how the cultural practice ofjeong and auniquely Korean collective moral responsibility, or uri-responsibility,which it entails, have contributed to the recent reinvigoration of ethicalcivil society in democratized Korea by focusing on three civil actioncases. In order to do so, first, I critically examine key concepts like uriand jeong, and challenge the conventional image of uri as an over-weening group identity that promotes social conformism by contrastingit with the pathological group-ego. Special attention will be given to thefamily-relational characteristic of uri and two dimensions of jeong(miun jeong and goun jeong ). Then I explore the political implicationsof uri in civil society by likening it to Rousseaus general will, andfinally highlight the cultural peculiarity of uri-responsibility by compar-ing and contrasting it with two Kantian-liberal accounts of responsibili-ty, on the one hand, and with Jaspers metaphysical responsibility,on the other. The essay concludes by revisiting the ethical vision inthe classical ideal of modern civil society and by presenting a jeong-based ethical civil society as the most politically practicable and cultur-ally relevant Korean alternative.