This paper explores income inequality based on class relations inKorea. Korea has been known as a model case of economic success,with a low level of economic inequality relative to other developingcountries. Utilizing national survey data, this analysis finds classinequality to be the most significant component of economic inequalityin Korea until 2003. Though we cannot conclude that economicinequality among classes has been expanded, due to a lack of compara-ble information before the economic crisis, we may at least say thatclass inequality is the most salient factor of economic inequality inKorea after the economic crisis.
This paper explores the fundamental principles and mechanisms of thepatriarchal order that facilitate the production of gender inequality incontemporary Korea. Instead of focusing on the external forces such asthe industrialization or globalization, it pays attention to internal ones,examining how they interact to generate gender inequality in specific his-torical context. The ideology of the male breadwinner has worked veryclosely with the state, global capital, and class ideology in various andsubtle ways. Women were included in rapid industrialization as cheaplabor, while they were forced out of the workforce during the financialcrisis because they were not regarded as primary breadwinners. Patrilineality is another generative mechanism that facilitates theproduction and maintenance of gender inequality. Hojuje (family-headsystem), the concentrated representation of patrilineality, has institu-tionalized women to relegation as second-class citizens. The paper con-cludes that gender inequality cannot be mitigated unless gender politicsdirectly intervene to tackle the fundamental principles of patriarchalorder.
This paper analyzes how and to what extent inequalities in educationalopportunity in Korea have changed during the second half of the twen-tieth century. Educational inequality is defined by social class differen-tials in both the quantity (success) and quality (path) of school transi-tions made at the secondary (middle to high school) and tertiary (col-lege) levels of schooling. The extent of educational stratification asexamined by the probability of transition to a higher grade has notbeen visibly alleviated over multiple generations. We also find that theextent of educational stratification is stronger in the secondary levelsthan in the tertiary schooling transition. The results also show that thelong-term trend of stratification in the Korean educational system hasdecreased inequality in terms of scale, but increased the qualitativeinequality of educational achievement between social classes. Even dur-ing the period of educational expansion and rapid economic develop-ment, social inequality in educational opportunity has resisted change.Such inequalities tend to reproduce themselves between successivecohorts, especially when quantitative socioeconomic opportunityremains limited.
This paper examined regional development disparities in Korea in the1990s. The disparities between the capital and non-capital regions andbetween the Yeongnam industrial districts and the rest of the countrydid not lessen even after the economic crisis in the late 1990s. WithSeouls traditional functions extended to the capital region, concentra-tion there was able to proceed uninterrupted. Inside the Yeongnamregion, the traditional large cities have shown signs of decline, whereaseconomic activities are flourishing in the industrial districts that func-tioned as a center of manufacturing products in the 1980s. Regionaleconomic activities in the 1990s were determined by such regional eco-nomic circumstances as conditions for business management and theclustering of economic actors within industrial complexes. The processof upgrading existing industries took place in the Yeongnam industrialdistricts, where corporate relationships between parents and subcon-tractors have taken root. The growth of new high-tech industries beganin the capital region, where financial resources are easily available andresearch institutions are concentrated. Differences in regional economicdevelopment produce disparities within the labor market and betweenhousehold incomes as well.
This article examines five major stereotypes concerning America held by Koreans from the earliest contacts about 150 years ago until the present day. The author examined each stereotype chronologically . The first stereotype held during the late Joseon period was a result of the prevailing Sinocentric worldview in the region. According to this view, Americans were uncultured barbarians. As knowledge of the West increased among Joseon intellectuals, however, a second stereotype arose; namely, that America was the wealthiest nation in the world with vast territory and no territorial ambitions. This view was given impetus by Huang Zunxian’s Zhaoxian celyue (A Strategy for Korea), which recommended that Joseon make an alliance with America. With the emergence of the United States as a major regional power in the wake of the Spanish-American War (1898), a third stereotype of America as an imperialist aggressor emerged. This view was particularly strong among Korean communists during the Japanese colonial period and became more firmly entrenched after 1945. A fourth stereotype also emerged during Japanese rule, which viewed America as a white nation pitted against the yellow nations of East Asia. This racialist view is particularly apparent in the writings of Yun Chi-ho and arose from his experience of racial discrimination in America as well as from the influence of Japanese propaganda. A fifth stereotype has emerged in recent times and views America as a nation in terminal decline. This view has its origins in the work of Oswald Spengler and the School of Decline. In his conclusion, the author argues that despite the existence of negative stereotypes, the positive stereotype of America as a benevolent nation has prevailed in the Republic of Korea. In conclusion, the author argues that Korean-American relations must be based not on stereotypes but on mutual understanding based on rational and objective research
The general South Korean predilection for the United States, which hasbeen mistakenly called chinmi (pro-Americanism), is nothing but ablind sense of amity to America imposed by the harsh requirements ofthe Cold War and nurtured by the undemocratic and militantly anti-communist political regimes of South Korea. Banmi (anti-American-ism), emerged as a corollary of two synchronous processes since the1980s, i.e., the political democratization of South Korea and the break-down of the Cold War system. Since America had been persistentlymythologized and assimilated in post-Korean War South Korea, thetracks of the perceptional transformation include disillusionment withthe discrepancy between U.S. foreign policies and its professed ideology,trade issues, awakened consciousness of South Korean national self-respect, and changes in the Korean perception of the world. The rise ofanti-American sentiment should therefore not be construed as a tokenof the radical shift in Korean attitudes toward America but as a reflec-tion of the normalization of the way Koreans view America and theworld. Discussions on the future of anti-Americanism in South Koreashould take into account the history and the nature of South Koreanpeoples love and hate of America.
This study aims to extract images of America and American soldiersout of Korean War Literature, and to search for and understand thepersisting, underlying formulae or forms in these images. The results ofthis study may appear provocative: for over 50 years, Korean writershave failed to give any authentic voices to America as a nation orAmericans as characters, mainly due to complex feelings originatingfrom the combined psychology of superiority and oppression.
This paper addresses Korean perceptions of America using Lacanianpsychoanalysis. Throughout modern Korean history, an idealizedimage of America has played the role of Koreas ego-ideal. While theU.S. has provided South Korea with its form of government and thefoundation of a capitalist economy, it has also defined the trajectory ofmany aspects of modern Korean history since Liberation in 1945. Fur-thermore, a series of historical experiences have caused significantchanges in Americas image. Today, the U.S. appears even as theobscene superego, the other side of the Other. These aspects of Americacorrespond to the three father figures presented by Lacan: the idealizedimaginary father, the symbolic father, and the obscene and violent realfather. Shifting views of America as the Other have been reflected inKorean films. In Spring in My Hometown and Phantom: The Subma-rine, the oppressive aspect of the American Other takes the figure of theobscene real father. In Joint Security Area, the split between the Ameri-can Other and the Other of a unified Korean national community is farmore manifest. Today, Korean subjects are still not free from the gazeof the American Other and the determining power of the U.S.
This paper argues that Koreas educational equalization policy hasfailed to achieve its major policy goals, which are to improve education-al equality and to reduce the economic burden of private tutoring andminimize the negative side effects of exam-oriented education. We alsosuggest that the equalization policy has lowered levels of academicachievement by limiting students and parents choice of schools, andby strengthening the governments control over schools. We alsoexplain the political-economic reasons why the equalization policy hasbeen maintained over the last 30 years, despite its evident negativeeffects. We conclude that the equalization policy should be overhauledthrough a number of reform measures, such as providing school choice,disclosing the differences between schools, increasing the autonomy ofschool units, and strengthening governmental support for students withlower academic achievement.
This paper explores the conditions and theoretical issues of literary trans-lation, with specific reference to an assessment project of English literaryclassics in translation. It consists of three parts: the internal and exter-nal conditions of literary translation in Korea, a brief report of the projectand its findings with reference to the translations of Pride and Prejudice,and lastly, some theoretical issues involved in such an assessment. Translation has been a significant factor in the formation of mod-ern Korea. However, the conditions of translation and the general qual-ity of translated texts still leaves much room for improvement. Thepractical purport of the project is to identify recommendable transla-tions of English classic novels, but in the case of the 34 translated ver-sions of Austens text, no single recommendable text was to be found.Such a result shows that the quality issue is still crucial, at least in thecontext of Korean translation, in spite of the paradigm shift we are wit-nessing now in Translation Studies from an evaluative approach to adescriptive one. This paper ends by reflecting on the categories of evalu-ation and faithfulness in terms of their theoretical and practical impli-cations.